What are major criticisms against the toc

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Reference no: EM133502

QUESTION 1

At the Millennium Summit in 2000, world leaders adopted the UN Millennium Declaration, thereby committing their nations to a new global partnership to decrease extreme poverty with a series of targets known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

(a) Examine the statement ‘The MDGs are not new but different''.

(b) Critically detailed upon the 8 MDGs with special reference to progresses made in Africa during past decade.

(c) The Government of Republic of Mauritius has embarked upon numerous policy initiatives which are largely inspired upon the MDGs. Discuss some of the main enterprises in this endeavour.

 

QUESTION 2

The UN Conference on Environment and Development in 1992, also known as the ‘Rio Earth Summit' represented a ‘watershed' in advance to global governance for sustainable development. During the summit, 27 principles for the achievement of sustainable development globally were outlined. All these principles build on the overarching concept of sustainable development which was established by the Brundtland Commission in 1987.

The principle of access to information, participation and justice in environmental decision making is enshrined in international environmental law during Principle 10 of the Rio Declaration.

(a) Examine underpinning philosophy and components of the Principle 10 of the Rio Declaration;

The Global Commons are considered as a major cause for unsustainable practices as regards the environment.

(b) In brief describe the main characteristics of the commons with special reference to Hardin's Tragedy of Commons (TOC).

(c) What are major criticisms against the TOC?

 

QUESTION 3

Tourism is one of fastest expanding global industries and has profound effects upon the sustainability of the planet. The UNTWO has realised the immense potentials of tourism in combating poverty and in light of similar it launched the ST-EP (Sustainable Tourism - Eliminating Poverty) Initiative.

(a) Examine the 7 ST-EP mechanisms and how they can help to combat poverty.

A carbon tax is a tax on the carbon content of fuels; more specifically a tax on the carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels. The rationale for a carbon tax is simple: the levels of CO2 already in the Earth's atmosphere and being added daily are destabilizing established climate patterns and threatening the ecosystems on which we and other living beings depend.

(b) Examine three fundamental reasons to support why carbon taxing is superior to carbon cap-and-trade systems.

 

QUESTION 4

The United Nations declared 2010 as the International Year of Biodiversity. Respond following short questions related to biodiversity.

(a) Examine the three types of biodiversity.

(b) Examine four main biodiversity threats associated with Shallow Tropical ecosystems?

(c) Examine four main significance of marine biodiversity.

Reference no: EM133502

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