International organization and zoonoses, Biology

International organization and zoonoses


In 1962, the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization created the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) to encourage fair international trade in food and to protect the health and economic interests of consumers. In 1995, the World Trade Organization (WTO) was established as a successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, providing a common framework for the conduct of trade among member countries in matters related to the Uruguay Round Trade Agreements. Prior to this time, national governments heavily subsidized many agricultural commodities. In addition, trade was inhibited by economic policies, including nontariff barriers erected by national governments to protect the country from the introduction of exotic animal diseases. However, the changes introduced by the Uruguay Round Trade Agreements included the Agreement on Trade-Related  Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, multilateral trade agreements, and the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The common threads in these trade agreements are harmonic, equivalence (not everybody has to ensure disease prevention in the same way, but there has to be similar risk between countries), and regionalization (whereby geographically distinct regions in a country may be designated disease-free and therefore able to export). Until recently, international standards have been the primary means of determining harmonization. The introduction of risk analysis into Codex and the WTO Agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures (called the SPS Agreement) now provides other means for harmonization. Equivalence can be determined by specifying risk-based objectives. The provisions of the SPS Agreement include protective measures that must be based on scientific risk assessments. Each country has a right to set up its own standards of protection, but a country cannot do so unjustifiably or arbitrarily.


This agreement is essential for the international trade in animals and animal products as it provides the legal framework for the application of OIE standards, guidelines and recommendations. SPS measure is applied to:

 

  • protect animal or plant life or health within the territory of the Member fromrisks arising from the entry, establishment or spread of pests, diseases, disease- carrying organisms or disease-causing organisms;
  • protect human or animal life or health within the territory of the Member from risks arising from additives, contaminants, toxins or disease-causing organisms in foods, beverages or feedstuffs;
  • protect human life or health within the territory of the Member from risks arising from diseases carried by animals, plants or products thereof, or from the entry, establishment or spread of pests;
  •  Prevent or limit other damage within the territory of the Member from the entry, establishment or spread of pests.

 

Posted Date: 9/20/2012 3:27:56 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- International organization and zoonoses, Assignment Help, Ask Question on International organization and zoonoses, Get Answer, Expert's Help, International organization and zoonoses Discussions

Write discussion on International organization and zoonoses
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Question 1 Discuss briefly the collection and examination of pericardial fluid Question 2 Discuss the following Collection of CSF Physical examination of CSF

Indinavir (IDV, Crixivan) Indinavir has good oral bioavailability. Indinavir 800 mg combined with ritonavir 100 mg  (both b.i.d. for ease of use) was comparable in effectiven

Explain about the Mucor  - Fungi? Mucor is present as a food contaminant. It resembles Rhizopus in life history and colonies appear just like Rhizopus. However, important diffe

Define the Healing Process - Root Canal Treatment The course of healing varies and depends on: 1)  Initial size of the lesion: It takes longer for larger periradicular lesio

Explain the Decolourizing Agent - Stain Technique? 95% ethanol is used as a decolourizing agent. It has two functions - (1) It acts as protein - dehydrating agent, and (2

Normal 0 false false false EN-IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

Discuss FASB and IASB. Comment on at least two specific aspect of the two standard setting boards and their role in setting accounting.

What is Imbibition The ability of colloids to pick up water and swell when they come in contact with water is called imbibition. Imbibition is usually accompanied by the evo

We are living in an unprecedented age of biological discovery and the application of biological knowledge.   Programmed DNA sequencing delivered, in the year of  2001 over the 2.6

flowers formation without any leaves?