Types of matter, Biology

Kinds of Matter

On basis of its chemical organization, matter id of three categories elements, compounds and mixture

An element is composed of obviously, earth similar atoms. Matter has as many types of elements as the atoms. Hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, sulphur chlorine, sodium iron copper, etc, are common examples of elements. Each element has its own specific properties o f colour, taste and chemical reactivity

A compound is composed of two or more different types of atoms .It is called molecular if ties constituent atoms bind by covalent bonds, and ionic if its atom bind ionic bonds. A compound is acidic if it release hydrogen ions when dissolved in water, and basic or alkaline if it releases OH ions .Acid and based react to form salts. Most compounds having carbon atoms are called organic, and those without carbon are called inorganic.

What to say of pure elements even pure compound are rare in present matter of earth. Most of this matte consists of mixtures of two or more compound. Mixtures may be solids, liquids or gases. Our food drugs, mineral, ores, nature water, rock, crude oils, etc. are all mixtures.  Some liquid (water, alcohol etc) acts as a solvent and all other solids of liquids dissolved in it are called solutes. Fluid mixtures may be true solutions, suspensions or colloids.

A true crystalline solution is homogeneous. Its solute particles are molecules and ions smaller than0.001 and, hence, invisible, even under the microscope. Solutions of salt and sugar are good example of true solutions.

In a suspension, solute particles are molecular aggregates larger than 0.1 these are visible by naked eyes. These first render the mixture heterogeneous, but later settle down to the bottom of  the container due to gravity. By mixing flour or clay in water, we get a suspension.   In which both solvent and solute are liquids, is called an emulsion. For Instance, butter is an emulsion of ghee in water.

A colloid mixture is intermediate between true solution and suspension. Its solute particles are large molecules macromolecules measuring 0.0001 to.01 in diameter and, hence, visible under the microscope. Colloid mixtures are also homogeneous. Milk,  gum, gelating, egg albumen, etc .are common examples of colloid mixtures. These usually coagulate on heating. 

Posted Date: 9/26/2012 4:17:22 AM | Location : United States

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