Spatial Structures Loading
Dead loads include the weight of permanent components such as elements and spheres weight, casing weight, false ceiling weight and utilities.
Live loads are non-permanent loads which are imposed the building during utilization and operation. These loads do not include the loads due to snow, wind, or earthquake. Live loads are defined as for structure user type and some that are likely to impose during the lifetime of the structure.
The load due to the earthquake
The load due to the earthquake is provided in accordance with various regulations, and regulations are usually considered factors such as magnitude and other characteristics of earthquake, distance from the epicenter, tectonic conditions, resistant system type against the earthquake, and etc. in estimating the forces due to earthquake. The obscure point in here is finding the plasticity coefficient of these structures.
Buildings and structures and all their elements and casings should be designed and constructed in accordance with reliable regulations criteria for the effect due to the wind. This effect should be calculated as for maximum wind speed in the region, buildings geometric form and elevation, and protection level that surrounding barriers make against the wind to them.
To determine the effect of the wind, it must be assumed that the wind will affect horizontally and in each directions on the building. In design, It is enough to investigate asynchronously the wind effect along the two perpendicular directions, rather along the main axes of the building.
In regulations, the factors such as the windy area, ground bulge and surrounding buildings, wind speed, air density, structure elevation, structure form and etc. are involved in determining the wind force.
Based on definition, snow load is the weight of snow layer that is likely to be exceeded less than 2 percent (Fifty-year return period) in any year, according to the available statistics in the region.
Loading combinations are found different coefficients, according to the type and design requirements which are performed based on allowable stress method or boundary method. Connections analysis is designated based on linear and non-linear behavior of connections and It is planned with higher reliability than the structure elements. That's why deterioration must be done by elements area under loading in final state.