Pleuritis, Biology

Pleuritis

It is the acute or chronic inflammation of the pleural membranes. It is characterized by pain during respiration, pleural effusion, and shallow rapid respiration.

Etiology: It is associated with pneumonia, pulmonary abscess, peritonitis and penetrating wounds of the chest wall. Pasteurella multocida, P. hemolytica, M. bovis, M. tuberculosis, and Mycoplasma (contagious bovine pleuropneumonia) are some of the causes of pleurisy in cattle and buffaloes.

Clinical signs: There is rise in body temperature in early stage of the disease. Loss of appetite, rapid and shallow respiration, dyspnoea with depression is observed. Abducted elbows and abdominal respiration may be seen. Animal is not inclined to move. In chronic stage, there is weight loss, intermittent fever and reduced exercise tolerance test. Frictional rubs may be heard on auscultation. There is dullness over the fluid filled area of thorax. Pleuritic ridge is evident at the costal arch. Pain is evident on palpation in the intercostal spaces. Cough is painful, short and shallow. Extension of the inflammation to the pericardial sac is also present. Death is due to anoxia and toxemia.

Diagnosis: Thoracocentesis can be performed for laboratory examination. Fluid may be examined for colour, odour, viscosity, protein, blood and cells. Fluid may also be examined for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. A foul odour of the pleural fluid and presence of gas bubbles indicate anaerobic organisms. Radiography of the chest is also suggested. Haematological investigations may not be specific and may indicate inflammatory process. Leukocytosis and increase in the protein concentration of pleural fluid may be seen in pleurisy.

Treatment: Prognosis of pleurisy is mostly unfavourable in the farm animals as disease is diagnosed quite late. Antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics are helpful. Antibiotics may directly be administered in the pleural sac. Dexamethasone can be used to reduce the degree of pleural effusion. Pleural effusion once formed, may reduce the chances of recovery of animal.

Posted Date: 9/19/2012 1:04:48 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Pleuritis, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Pleuritis, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Pleuritis Discussions

Write discussion on Pleuritis
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
After stinging its victim, the honeybee leaves behind the barbed stinger, poison sac, and muscles that continue to pump venom into the wound. A study compared two methods of removi

Define Methods of Determination of Proteins and Amino Acid Content in Foods? The methods for protein quality evaluation are grouped under the following headings: I) Analytic

what is definition of applied biology?

Explain Enzymes Enzymes are the proteins that  act  as  catalysts,  speeding the  rate  at which biochemical reactions proceed but not altering  the direction or nature of th

What is Anatomic concavities Anatomic concavities present in the lingual surface of the mandible, the sublingual fossa anteriorly and the submandibular fossa posteriorly. Norm

A 42 year old woman decides to lose weight on a diet prescribed by an anorexic friend. She loses about 30 pounds in 45 days, but her serum potassium level falls to 2.1 mmol/L (norm

Q. What are the main degenerative diseases of the heart? The major degenerative diseases of the heart are heart failure, arrhythmias, valvular heart diseases, coronary insuffic

Two parents who are each known to be carriers of an autosomal recessive alleles have four children. None of the children has the recessive condition. What is the probability that o

Of the following, which mechanisms are significant in the death of erythrocytes (pron: eh-rith-reh-sites) in human blood? Is it a) Phagocytosis (pron: fag-eh-seh-toe-sis) b)

1. What are the examples of helobial endosperm