Pleuritis, Biology

Pleuritis

It is the acute or chronic inflammation of the pleural membranes. It is characterized by pain during respiration, pleural effusion, and shallow rapid respiration.

Etiology: It is associated with pneumonia, pulmonary abscess, peritonitis and penetrating wounds of the chest wall. Pasteurella multocida, P. hemolytica, M. bovis, M. tuberculosis, and Mycoplasma (contagious bovine pleuropneumonia) are some of the causes of pleurisy in cattle and buffaloes.

Clinical signs: There is rise in body temperature in early stage of the disease. Loss of appetite, rapid and shallow respiration, dyspnoea with depression is observed. Abducted elbows and abdominal respiration may be seen. Animal is not inclined to move. In chronic stage, there is weight loss, intermittent fever and reduced exercise tolerance test. Frictional rubs may be heard on auscultation. There is dullness over the fluid filled area of thorax. Pleuritic ridge is evident at the costal arch. Pain is evident on palpation in the intercostal spaces. Cough is painful, short and shallow. Extension of the inflammation to the pericardial sac is also present. Death is due to anoxia and toxemia.

Diagnosis: Thoracocentesis can be performed for laboratory examination. Fluid may be examined for colour, odour, viscosity, protein, blood and cells. Fluid may also be examined for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. A foul odour of the pleural fluid and presence of gas bubbles indicate anaerobic organisms. Radiography of the chest is also suggested. Haematological investigations may not be specific and may indicate inflammatory process. Leukocytosis and increase in the protein concentration of pleural fluid may be seen in pleurisy.

Treatment: Prognosis of pleurisy is mostly unfavourable in the farm animals as disease is diagnosed quite late. Antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics are helpful. Antibiotics may directly be administered in the pleural sac. Dexamethasone can be used to reduce the degree of pleural effusion. Pleural effusion once formed, may reduce the chances of recovery of animal.

Posted Date: 9/19/2012 1:04:48 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Pleuritis, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Pleuritis, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Pleuritis Discussions

Write discussion on Pleuritis
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
What are some significant neurotransmitters? The following are some neurotransmitters: adrenaline (epinephrine), noradrenaline (norepinephrine), dopamine, acetylcholine, seroto

Adaptation is the tendency of an organism to suit its environment; one of the main points of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by the natural selection: organisms adapt to thei

Define the term price mechanism and how it works. The price mechanism and its working: The above demonstrated diagram assumes the market is into equilibrium, whereby deman

Excitation of Heart - Circulation The heart has an inherent capacity to contract rhythmically without any external stimulus. Proof of this is obtained when we see that the hea


Is it possible that an X chromosome of a woman can have come from her father? It isn't only possible that an X chromosome of a woman is from her father, it is certain. Each wom

What would occur to the successive trophic levels in the pyramid of energy if the rate of reproduction of phytoplankton was slowed down? Suggest two factors, which could cause l

Method to Estimate Phytochrome Since there is no chemical test, the only method available to test and estimate phytochrome is the spectrophotometric method. Firstly, the diffe

There are several different lipoprotein species found in plasma but their basic structures are similar. The insoluble lipid (cholesterol ester and triglyceride) forms a central cor

Determine about the Sense of  Contrast It is  the ability to  perceive  slight changes  in  luminance between  regions which  are not  separated by  definite borders. This  is