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Parallel Operation of Interconnected Synchronous Generators
In order to assure continuity of the power supplywithin prescribed limits of frequency and voltage at all the load points scattered over the service area, it becomes necessary in any modern power system to operate several alternators in parallel, interconnected by various transmission lines, in a well-coordinated and optimized manner for the most economical operation. A generator can be paralleled with an infinite bus (or with another generator running at rated voltage and frequency supplying the load) by driving it at synchronous speed corresponding to the system frequency and adjusting its field excitation so that its terminal voltage equals that of the bus. If the frequency of the incoming machine is not exactly equal to that of the system, the phase relation between its voltage and the bus voltagewill vary at a frequency equal to the difference between the frequencies of the machine and the bus voltages. In normal practice, this difference can usually be made quite small, to a fraction of a hertz; in polyphase systems, it is essential that the same phase sequence be maintained on either side of the synchronizing switch. Thus, synchronizing requires the following conditions of the incoming machine:
• Correct phase sequence• Phase voltages in phase with those of the system• Frequency almost exactly equal to that of the system• Machine terminal voltage approximately equal to the system voltage
A synchroscope is used for indicating the appropriate moment for synchronization. After the machine has been synchronized and is part of the system, it can be made to take its share of the active and reactive power by appropriate adjustments of its prime-mover throttle and field rheo stat.
The system frequency and the division of active power among the generators are controlled by means of prime-mover throttles regulated by governors and automatic frequency regulators, whereas the terminal voltage and the reactive volt-ampere division among the generators are controlled by voltage regulators acting on the generator-field circuits and by transformers with automatic tap-changing devices.
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