Meaning and characteristics - types of approaches, Other Management

Meaning and Characteristics:

Meaning: The survey method primarily focuses on  the present. In nursing survey approach  is  used  to a great extent.  It  is  a non-experimental method where  the  investigator studies a community or  a group of people for the purpose  of examining  the  characteristics, opinion, orientations of  the population. Data may be gathered by  asking questions,  by  interview, by  observing  on what people  are doing, thinking or feeling. For example, a study was  conducted to find the opinion  of nurses and patients relatives towards mental illness. Here the  survey data were opinions. 

Definition: survey  is  that branch of research that examines  the  characteristics, attitudes, behaviours  and  intentions of  a group of  people by  asking individuals to answer questions either through interview or questionnaire. Survey is the most appropriate method  of  gathering information from a large sample-Indian  Council of Medical Research (ICMR) collected growth data through measurement of height, weight, chest and head circumstances of  a large number  of  children from all parts  of  India.  In  order to find out the growth nbrms  of  Indian children,.  it was necessary  to collect data from all states covering East, West,  South and North  of  India  from urban and rural population. 

Survey data were measurement,  i.e. height in cm, weight  in  kg.  and circumference  in cm. The reader may be familiar with  the recent census study where survey approach was used  to obtain demographic data. Mostly questioning and interview techniques were used for collecting data  in population survey

Characteristics  of Survey Survey data can be  collected  in  number of ways. The most  common method is questioning. The information  is  obtained directly  from the respondent by face to face interview and self-administered questionnaire. A carefully developed interview schedule or questionnaire  is  essential. The  tool  should be reliable and valid. Personal interviews are regarded as the most useful method  of  collecting survey because  of  the depth and quality of  information can be  obtained. A high degree of return  is possible  in  interview as relatively few people refuse  to be interviewed. Survey data also can be collected from other techniques like observation and measurement.  

To survey, generally information is  collected from  the  sample rather than  from every-member of the population. Data obtained from the  sample can  lead  to erroneous conclusions if proper sampling technique is not observed. Biases  in the sample selection are to be avoided and size of the  sanple should be adequate so that generalization can be  done. The population should be heterogeneous on key variables. Whatever variation will occur in population, the  same variables should be reflected  in  the sample. The  probability sampling technique is a better method of selection of  sample asin  this process, each element of  the population has  equal  and independent chance of being selected.  


Posted Date: 11/2/2012 8:22:55 AM | Location : United States

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