History of psychiatric nursing, Biology

History of Psychiatric Nursing:

In 1873, Linda Richards, developed better nursing care in psychiatric hospitals, and organized nursing services and educational programmes  in  state mental hospitals. For these activities, she is called the First American Psychiatric Nurse. 

First School for Psychiatric Nursing In 1882, the first school to prepare nurses to care for mentally ill at Mclean Hospital  in Weverly, Massachusetts; was started. The nurses were prepared in this school to attend to the physical needs, administer medications, meet the nutritional needs, hygienic needs, and monitor ward activities. They were also prepared to provide psychological care consisting of being kind and tolerant to the patients. In England, preparation of psychiatric nurses and their certification by the Medico-Psychological Association began in 1891 (Anton, 198  I), yet it was actually in-service training. 'Nationally recognized qualification' of general nurses in Britain came in 1925.

First Book in Psychiatric Nursing In 1920, Harriet Bailey published  the first psychiatric nursing  textbook,  ''Nursing Mental Disease'. Nursing the disease rather than the person suffering with  the disease prevailed. Psychiatric nurses performed the 'mother role' activities. They disciplined patients and provided custodial companionship  care.  

In America 

Benjamin Rush (1  745-  18  13), the founder of American Psychiatry, encouraged more humane treatment  to the mentally  ill, and was  the first American to organize a course in psychiatry. His work was  followed  through by Dorothea Dix (1802-1887), a retired school teacher. Dix canied on an intensive compaign between  1841 and 1881, and brought out  the awareness of the  inhuman treatment given  to  the mentally  ill. She reformed the asylum system. This  led to establishment  of  nearly thirty-two modem mental hospitals. She organized the nursing courses of  the Northern Armies, during the civil war. 

Sigmud Freud  (1856-1939) sought  to describe what he called the  "Anatomy of Personality". He  isolated three  categories of  experiences -  the  Id, Ego and Super ego as a method of  looking  at  the way an individual  functions. From these details you will understand that before, 1880s psychiatric patients were given custodial care. They were  looked  after  by  attendants  who were prepared  to maintain control of  the patient. They had very  little training and  the care given was  poor.  

Posted Date: 10/26/2012 9:21:07 AM | Location : United States

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