Components of ecosystem, Biology

An ecosystem consists of two types of components:

(a)   Abiotic components:

This includes the non-living components of the ecosystem. These are physical and chemical factors.

1.             Physical factors include: Sunlight, shade, wind, humidity, rain, types of soil and its pH.

2.           Chemical factors:

                  (i)            Inorganic substances:  includes C, H, O, N, P, S, and H2O etc involved in material cycle.

                  (ii)           Organic substances: includes carbohydrates, proteins, lipids etc present in biomass.

(b)   Biotic Components:

All the organisms are part of biotic components. They are grouped into three categories:

(1)   Produce (2) Consumers (3) Decomposers.

 

(1)   Producers:

All the green plants of an ecosystem are collectively known as producers. The green plant have chlorophyll by which they trap solar energy  and convert it into carbohydrate by using CO2 and H2O .this process is known as photosynthesis. So, green plants are called autotrophs (auto-self: troph-food) as they prepare their own food. No ecosystem can survive without green plants.

(2)   Consumers:

        They are known as heterotrophs (hetero- other, trophs-food) as they are directly or indirectly depend upon producers for their food. They are categorized as follows:

(i)           Primary Consumers or Herbivores:  they are first order consumers because they depend upon green plants or producers for their food eg. Cow, goat, rabbit, deer.

(ii)         Secondary Consumers: they are also known as primary carnivores because they depend upon primary consumers for their food.eg. Fox, cat, frog.

(iii)       Tertiary Consumers:  they are also known as secondary carnivores because they depend upon secondary consumers for their food eg. Owl, peacock wolves etc.

(iv)        Quaternary Consumers: they are top carnivores which depend upon tertiary consumes for their food and not eaten by any other animals eg lion, tiger, crocodile etc.

 

(3)   Decomposers:

They are small microscopic (fungi, bacteria) organisms and occur everywhere in ecosystem i.e. and, air and water. They decompose dead organic matter into simpler compounds. They are also known as saprophytes.

The producers form first trophic level of food chain, herbivores form the second trophic level and carnivores form third trophic level.

Posted Date: 7/11/2012 6:47:16 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Components of ecosystem, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Components of ecosystem, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Components of ecosystem Discussions

Write discussion on Components of ecosystem
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Locomotion in Annelida Before we discuss the details of locomotion in annelids, we have to recapitulate the major subdivisions of the phylum Annelida. Phylum Annelida contain

Infectious bursal disease (IBD) It is a highly contagious acute disease in young chicken up to 6 weeks of age causing high morbidity and low mortality. Bursa may atrophy at th

Concerning permeability what type of membrane is the cell membrane? The cell membrane is a selectively permeable membrane, i.e., it permits the passage of water and some select

What is the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis? How is the disease transmitted and what are its typical manifestations? Visceral leishmaniasis is caused by the protozo

In this 1st step, the corresponding  aminoacyl-tRNA for  the  second  codon  binds  to  the  A  site  by  codon-anticodon interaction.  Binding  of  the  aminoacyl-tRNA needs  elon

The environmental pollution has become a biggest threat  to humanity. To over-come this problem a suitable preventive legislation is need of hour. The problems of acid rain ,ozone

Minerals  :-  Zinc Food Source      Meats, cereals.  Nutritional Functional role Essential nutrient: Deficiency produces loss of appetite, growth retardation, skin

parts of a typical flower? define its parts and internal parts completely? show complete colourful diagram?

why do ecological models commonly have limited applications ?

Title Legal aspects in obstetrical ultrasound  Introduction Obstetric ultrasound is an essential component of antenatal care and it is widely perceived to be associated