Coccidiosis, Biology

Coccidiosis

It is a protozoan disease, caused by Eimeria species, resulting in enteritis, debility and anaemia.

Etiology: It is caused by E. zuernii, E. bovis and E. ellipsoidalis in bovines; E. arloingi and E. ahsata in sheep; and E. arloingi and E. faurei in goats. The disease occurs in calves, lambs or kids and is more prevalent in humid wet climate and overcrowded stock.

Pathogenesis: The ingested oocysts produce sporozoites which invade endothelial cells of villi of small intestine and develop into asexual schizonts. After maturation of schizonts, merozoites are released by rupture of epithelial cells. New epithelial cells are invaded. Its life cycle occurs in alimentary mucosa. Different species of parasite remain at different sites of intestine.

Clinical signs: Initially animals show mild fever but later on temperature becomes normal or subnormal. There is sudden onset of foul smelling diarrhoea which contains excess of mucus and blood. It may appear as a dark tarry staining of faeces or red streaks of blood or clot. Tenesmus, weakness, loss of appetite and anaemia are also noticed in affected calves or lambs. In younger animals suffering from severe form of the disease, nervous signs are seen like hyperesthesia, muscular tremors and convulsions.

On postmortem examination, haemorrhagic enteritis, thickening of mucosa of intestine and congestion are noticed. Small white cyst like bodies is formed at the tip of the villi.

Diagnosis: It is diagnosed by faecal examination for the presence of oocysts, and clinical sign.

Treatment: Large number of coccidiostats is available for use in calves or lambs. Sulfadimidine can be given in calves and lambs @ 140 mg/kg body weight/ day orally for 3 days. Nitrofurazone @ 15 mg/kg body weight/day orally for 7 days or amprolium @10 mg/kg body weight/day orally can be given for 5 days. Lambs can be treated with monensin @ 2 mg/kg body weight orally for 15 days.

Control: Coccidiostats are used at a lower dose rate for a long period for the prevention of disease. These drugs are mixed in feeds to avoid cumbersome individual dosing of the animal. Sulphadimidine is given to calves in feed @ 35 mg/kg or in lambs @25 mg/kg body weight for 1 to 2 week, respectively, whereas amprolium in calves and lambs is used @ 5 and 50 mg/kg body weight, respectively for 3 weeks. Monensin in calves and lambs is used @ 20 mg/kg feed. General hygienic measures, isolation of infected animals and avoidance of overcrowding should be practiced for the prevention of disease.

Posted Date: 9/20/2012 1:48:04 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Coccidiosis, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Coccidiosis, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Coccidiosis Discussions

Write discussion on Coccidiosis
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Endodontic success - According to Strindberg 1956 the endodontic success is the postoperative clinical as well as radiographic satisfaction after a predetermined postoperative

Acute Myocardial Infarction :  Patients with acute non-Q myocardial infarction may need urgent intervention as indicated for cases of unstable angina.

Write in 3-4 lines about foot examination Foot ulceration and amputation are common and major causes of morbidity and disability in people with diabetes. Skin integrity should

Q. Complications during rheumatic heart disease? Inflammation of Inning of heart (pericarditis), anaemia, heart ,enlargement, valve deformities (mitral and tricuspid valves),

Inspiration decreases the pressure in the central veins and thus increases the pressure gradient between the peripheral and central veins thus augmenting venous return. Skeletal mu

Functions of cerebrum The forebrain is otherwise called as ‘cerebrum'. It is highest centre for controlling several functions in the body, The most interesting aspect

what two gases are released by animals during the process of cellular respiration

Imporatnce of food preservation These include: increased shelf-life decreased hazards from microbial pathogen decreased spoilage (microbial, enzymatic) in

Contagious ecthyma The contagious ecthyma virus is immunologically distinct from vaccinia, but similar  to the causative agent of pseudo-cow-pox. It belongs to the genus Parapoxvi

In humans, maleness or femaleness is determined by a pair of sex chromosomes called X and Y.    (a) What is the genotype for males?    (b) What is the genot