Acid indigestion, Biology

Acid indigestion

It is also known as ruminal acidosis, acute carbohydrate engorgement, rumen over load or lactic acidosis. Ingestion of large quantities of highly fermentable carbohydrate leads to the excessive production of lactic acid in the rumen of cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goat, and drop in ruminal pH. It is characterized by severe toxemia, dehydration, ruminal stasis, recumbency and high mortality rate.

Etiology: Most common cause of acid indigestion is accidental ingestion of highly fermentable feed such as wheat, barley or maize by animal to which they are not accustomed. Less common causative agents are bread, molasses, gur, grapes, apples and potatoes.

Pathogenesis: Finely ground or crushed grains are considered toxic, which exposes a larger surface area and starch component of grain to ruminal microflora. Ingestion of excessive quantity of fermentable carbohydrate change rumen microbes. There is an increase in the number of lactic acid producing bacteria Streptococcus bovis thus producing a large quantity of lactic acid, which decreases rumen pH (5 or less) causing destruction of cellulolytic bacteria and protozoa. Low pH permits the Lactobacilli to produce large quantity of D and L forms of lactic acid enhancing the ruminal osmolarity, thereby withdrawing water from the circulation to result in haemo-concentration and dehydration. At pH 5, there is ruminal stasis. Some strains of Lactobacilli in rumen produce histamine by decarboxylation of histidine. The neurological signs develop as a result of thiamine deficiency occurring due to thiaminase enzyme production by microorganisms. Renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate decreases causing anuria. Chemical rumenitis is the result of high concentration of lactic acid. Animal may die at this stage by shock.

Clinical signs: The amount and nature of grains consumed by the animal determines the severity of the disease. It is more severe with the finely ground than the whole grains. Within few hours of grain engorgement, there is distended rumen, abdominal pain, and kicking at the belly. In mild cases, animal shows the signs of inappetance to anorexia. Animal is seen in the recumbency in severe form. There is staggering gait, absence of rumination and soft to watery faeces. Ruminal movements are sluggish or absent with increased and shallow respiration. Faeces may contain undigested grains. Absence of faeces and heart rate above 120/min  indicate poor prognosis. Animal is dehydrated and its body temperature is slightly elevated. There is laminitis resulting in stiff gait. Nervous signs consist of depression or coma. Apparent blindness may be seen in some animals. On auscultation of rumen, gurgling sounds may be heard. In early stage there is frequent urination but later on there is anuria. Pressing of head and grinding of teeth are shown by the affected animal.

Laboratory diagnosis: The rumen pH in ruminal acidosis varies between 5 and 6, sometimes less than 5, as against normal ruminal pH between 6.5 and 6.8. Microscopic examination of rumen fluid may reveal predominance of Gram positive bacteria, low concentration to complete absence of protozoa, reduced protozoal motility and absence of protozoal iodophillic activity. PCV (packed cell volume) rises to over 45 % demonstrating hemoconcentration. Urine is concentrated and acidic.

Diagnosis: Diagnosis is based upon the history of excessive consumption of concentrate ration. Severe cases may resemble hypocalcaemia but the later is associated with hard faeces and no marked dehydration. Diffuse peritonitis is accompanied by abdominal pain, leukocytosis and neutrophilia.

Treatment: Mild cases usually recover without treatment. Ruminal and systemic acidosis is required to be corrected and further production of lactic acid should be prevented. Restore fluid and electrolyte losses and rumen motility. Rumen lavage by infusing warm water and then siphoning out the rumen contents reduces the acid producing feed material. Rumenotomy may be required in severe cases. If rumen contents can not be emptied, administer several liters of water to decrease the rumen hypertonicity and treat with 20 to 50 million units of penicillin or 1 to 2 g neomycin or 2 to 4 g chloramphenicol orally to control the growth of lactic acid producing bacteria. The systemic acidosis can be corrected by giving 1.3 to 5% sodium bicarbonate solution intravenously. Cud transfer (5 to 8 liters of rumen fluid) may also be done to restore ruminal flora and fauna for early recovery. Alkalizers like sodium bicarbonate, magnesium oxide or magnesium hydroxide may be given to neutralize ruminal acidity. Antihistaminics should be given intramuscularly. Liver tonics, rumenotorics and thiamine may also be required. Water supply of the animal should be restricted for 12-24 h, if animal has ingested excessive grains but has not developed the symptoms.

Posted Date: 9/18/2012 9:25:02 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Acid indigestion, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Acid indigestion, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Acid indigestion Discussions

Write discussion on Acid indigestion
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Diabetic foot are impaired blood supply to foot Diabetic foot are impaired blood supply to foot i.e. vasculopathy. This leads to ischaemia which in turn leads to delayed or non

Non-viral vectors   Viral vectors are highly efficient but when it comes to large scale production at the commercial level, non-viral serve as a better choice. These methods p

Q. On which organelle of the cell structure does intracellular digestion depend? What is the chemical content of those organelles? Intracellular digestion take place by the act

Q. Pulmonary Arterial System Changes ? a) Pulmonary Plethora With increased pulmonary arterial blood flow, pulmonary branches are visualized beyond the inner 2/3 of the lung

state 5 advantages and disadvantages of protozoa

Q. Do the -R groups bound to the central carbons participate in the union between amino acids? The peptide bond attaches the nitrogen of the amine group of one amino acid to th

What is the part of the female reproductive system where fecundation occurs? Fecundation generally happens in the Fallopian tubes but it can also take place within the uterus.

A) General:   umbilical cord  Placenta  Bone marrow  Ophthalmic cornea { conjectiva of the eye }  Kidney  Spleen  (B) Dental:  Dental pulp

Adrenal causes of hypertension are: 1) Excess of aldosterone production in primary aldosteronism. The diagnosis may be suspected when persistent hypokalemia is detected. Most of

Q. What is the plasma membrane of the cell? What are its major functions? The plasma membrane is the external membrane of the cell, it delimits the cell itself and a cell inter