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Applied Thermodynamics

Applied thermodynamics can be termed as the relationship between heat, work and system that analyze the energy processes. This science concerns itself with conversion of energy contained in available resources like fossil fuels into mechanical work. There are number of analytical and theoretical methods which are applied to machines for the process of energy conversion.

Heat and Heat transfer .

The heat transfer is one of the basic concepts to be understood for studying engineering thermodynamics. Heat may be crossed to, from or across the boundaries of a system. Heat is transferred only when there is a temperature difference between the system and the surrounding and is transferred by the process of conduction, convection and radiation, which occur in combination or separately.

Various types of processes

1. Isobaric process- the process during which the pressure of the working fluid is constant.

2. Isothermal process- the process during which the temperature of the working fluid is constant.

3. Isentropic process- the process during which the entropy of the working fluid is constant.

4. Isometric process- the process during which the volume of the working fluid is constant.

5. Adiabatic process- the process in which no heat is supplied or rejected from the working fluid.

The three laws of thermodynamics

The zeroth law- If two thermodynamic systems, A and B are in thermal equilibrium with each other and one of them, say B is in thermal equilibrium with another thermodynamic system C , then A and C are also in thermal equilibrium.

First law of thermodynamics- Energy can neither be created nor can it be destroyed. The law states that when the heat and work interactions occur between a closed system and its environment, then the algebraic sum of work and heat interactions for a given cycle of the closed system is zero.

Second law of thermodynamics- Occurrence of all types of spontaneous reactions within a system lead to an overall entropy increase of the system and therefore the entropy of the universe always increases.

Third law of thermodynamics- The entropy of the system is zero at the absolute zero temperature.

Applications of engineering thermodynamics

All materials exist in either solid liquid or gaseous phase and all one component systems share certain characteristics. In a system where liquid and vapor coexist, it is called a saturated state. When the liquid and vapor are in equibillrium, the pressure is called saturation pressure and the temperature is called saturation temperature. When the temperature of a gas or vapor is greater than the saturation temperature, it is termed as superheated vapor. The study of air and water vapor mixtures used for air conditioning is called psychometry. The air in this study is approximated for containing nitrogen and oxygen only as other gases in air are contained in small amounts.

Some common terms and cycles used in engineering thermodynamic applications

Heat engine- a device that converts heat energy into mechanical energy is called heat engine. It also a system which operates continuously and only heat and work pass across its boundaries.

Rankine cycle- It is also called the standard vapor power cycle and in this cycle, the working fluid follows a closed cycle.

Otto cycle- The idealization of the process which is found in reciprocating internal combustion engines is called the Otto cycle. Most automobiles use this cycle of thermodynamic application.

Diesel cycle- In diesel cycle heat is supplied at constant pressure. It is the ideal cycle for compression ignition engines (those not requiring spark plug).

Gas turbine cycle- Gas turbines are basically rotary internal combustion engines. The air which is introduced from out side is compressed by a compressor and then the fluid is introduced and the resultant mixture of air and fuel is ignited in the chamber. The turbine expanded by hot gases produces work. The turbine output is exhausted by an exhaust system.

Refrigeration cycle-an ideal refrigeration cycle is the reverse of Carnot cycle and works as a heat pump instead of a heat engine. The gas refrigeration cycle is used in an aircraft for cabin cooling. Rankine vapor compressor cycle is also used in other refrigerating units.