Fabrication of an integrated circuit, Chemical Engineering

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Explain the various steps required in the fabrication of an integrated circuit.

Lithography: The method for pattern definition by applying thin uniform layer of viscous liquid (photo-resist) on the wafer surface.

Etching: Selectively deleting unwanted material from the surface of the wafer. The pattern of the photo-resist is transferred to the wafer by means of etching agents.

Deposition: Films of the several materials are applied on the wafer.

Chemical Polishing: A planarization method by applying chemical slurry with etchant agents to the wafer surface.


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