## Define alum (aluminum sulfate) caogulation, Civil Engineering

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Define Alum (aluminum sulfate) Caogulation

• Purchased as dry or liquid alum { Al2(SO4)3,14 H2O}, MW 594 (other formulas with varying number of water molecules also used)
• 48.8% alum and rest water
• When alum is added to water containing alkalinity (pH 5.5 to 8.)

• Each mole of alum uses 6 moles of alkalinity (HCO-3) and produces 2 moles of aluminum hydroxide (solid precipitate) and 6 moles of CO2 which decreases the ph
• However due to the presence of alkalinity pH won't lower drastically If there is not enough alkalinity, lime (either as CaO or Ca(OH)2 ) or soda ash (Na2CO3) can be added to prevent pH from lowering due to the coagulation reaction.

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