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Solar or photovoltaic (PV) cells convert sunlight to electricity and are commonly used to power calculators, satellites, remote communication systems, and even pumps. The conversion of light to electricity is called the photoelectric effect. It was first discovered in 1839 by Frenchman Edmond Becquerel, and the first PV module, which consisted of several cells connected to each other, was built in 1954 by Bell Laboratories. The PV modules today have conversion efficiencies of about 12 to 15 percent. Noting that the solar energy incident on a normal surface on earth at noontime is about 1000 W/m2 during a clear day, PV modules on a 1-m2 surface can provide as much as 150 W of electricity. The annual average daily solar energy incident on a horizontal surface in the United States ranges from about 2 to 6 kWh/m2. A PV-powered pump is to be used in Arizona to pump water for wildlife from a depth of 180 m at an average rate of 400 L/day. Assuming a reasonable efficiency for the pumping system, which can be defined as the ratio of the increase in the potential energy of the water to the electrical energy consumed by the pump, and taking the conversion efficiency of the PV cells to be 0.13 to be on the conservative side, determine the size of the PV module that needs to be installed, in m2.
a) Calculate Darcy's velocity of the groundowater as well as the amount of water that passes through the aquifer each day. b) for the same aquifer, determine the seepage velocity of water through aquifer if the effective porosity is 32%.
A construction site requires 35,000 yds^3 of soil in a compacted state with a moist unit weight of 126 pcf at a water content of 14%. if the uncompacted soil currently has a unit weight of 96 pcf and water content of 14%
A flow of 125,000 gallons per day enters a sedimentation basin which is 20 feet wide, 60 feet long and 12 feet deep. What is the minimum settling velocity of a particles that will be 100% removed by the basin
An open rectangular tank contains water up to about half its depth. this tank accerlerates at a=2.2m/s2 up a slope of alpha, which causes the free water surface to form an angle theta with the horizontal plane. what is angle aplha of the slope
In order to comply with regulations, an iron/steel sinter plant installs an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) to collect 98% of the 10 ?m particles from an air stream flowing at 2 m3/s
You need to compare measured and predicted deflections for the three situations described below. Comment on reasons for the differences between the predicted and measured values. Recall that E = 69 GN/m2, rho = 2700 kg/m3, and the beam cross-section ..
Calculate the critical radius and the number of atoms in the nucleus of the homogeneous nucleation in GERMANIUM. The latent heat of fusion is 8100 cal per g-mile (atom) and the coefficient of linear expansion is 5.75*10^-6 per K
A cantilever beam AB has a rectangular cross section and is loaded by a force P at an angle α that acts at the centroid of the cross section. Two strain gages are placed at point C, which is at mid-height of the beam. Gage D measures the strain in th..
Concrete mix with a 3 in slump, w/c ratio of .5, and sand with a fineness modulus of 2.4 contains 1700 lb of coarse aggregate. compute the required weight of the aggregate per cubic yard.
samples of 20 rivets for a steel structure are checked for quality every hour.the probability of finding a bad rivet
Using graphical methods, find the resultant of the systems of concurrent forces shown. Please show work.
Two triaxial tests were performed on two prepared samples of the same limestone. At a confining pressure of 2000 psi, the first sample failed at 9000 psi. Then at a confining pressure of 5000 psi
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