Vertebrates - osmotic and ionic regulation, Biology

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Vertebrates - Osmotic and Ionic Regulation

In terrestrial vertebrates hormones such as prolactin, antidiuretic hormone and adrenocortical steroids are known to control water and salt balance Hormones of urohypophysis and corpuscles of Stannius are also involved in some of the aquatic forms. Parathyroid glands and ultimobranchial bodies maintain the levels of calcium and phosphorus. Catacholamines and angiotensin also participate in this regulatory system. The hormones operate faintly or individually on all the target organs concerned with water/ion balance.


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