Types of hormones, Biology

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Types of hormones -

(i) Releasing and Inhibitory hormones - Hormones of hypothalamus and kidney (renin) which control secretion of trophic hormones.

(ii) Trophic hormones - Hormones controlling activity of other endocrine glands and growth, e.g. anterior pituitary hormones like thyrotropin for thyroid.

(iii) Hormones connected with Reproduction. FSH, LH (ICSH), oxytocin are sex hormones. (iv) Hormones connected with Growth and Development. GH (somtotrophin), thyroxine.

(v) Hormones of Digestive system. Gastrin, secretin, enterocrinin etc.

(vi) Hormones connected with Metabolism. Insulin glucagon, calcitonin, corticoids

(vii) Hormone Neurotransmitters. Hormones which also function as neurotransmitters, e.g., noradrenaline (= nore- pinephrine), adrenaline (=epinephrine).

  • Female contraceptive pills. Generally contain oestrogen and progestrone.
  • Gravidex test. Test for pregnancy, e.g. hCG test.
  • Largest Endocrine gland. Thyroid.
  • Largest endocrine organ system - Gut.
  • Temporary Endocrine gland. Corpus luteum, placenta.
  • Receding Endocrine Gland. Thymus, shrinks after puberty.
  • Smallest Endocrine Gland. Pituitary (0.5 - 1.0 gm).
  • Triple F Glands. Emergency glands or adrenals for flight, fight and fright.
  • Four S Glands. Adrenal glands as they manage salt, sugar, sex and stress reactions.
  • Gonadotrophins, FSH and LH/ICSH. Some workers also include hCG and prolactin under gonadotrophins.
  • Brain Sand. Granular bodies of calcium, magnesium and amoonium phosphate present in pineal body and piamater (on calcification).
  • Infantilism. Persistence or recurrence of a childish condition or behaviour pattern in an adult due to abnormal physical sexual or psychological immaturity.
  • Simmond's Disease (= Panhypopituitarism). The disease makes the patient thin, prematurely senile, with unduly wrinkled face, sparse gray hair, low blood pressure, slow pulse, weak bones, little manifestation of secondary sexual characters, loss of libido, etc. due to absence of or damage to pituitary gland, especially adenohypophysis.
  • Dormitory Effect. Synchronisation of menstrual cycles of women living together, probably due to pheromones.

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