Theileriosis, Biology

Theileriosis

It is also referred as tropical theileriosis and results in fever, enlargement of superficial lymphnodes, anaemia and jaundice.

Etiology: The disease in India is caused by Theileria annulata in cows and buffaloes, and in sheep and goats by T. ovis and T. hirci (details are given in chapter....).

Pathogenesis: In the saliva of ticks, sporozoites are present which enter inside the body of animals by tick infestation and reach into lymphocytes to form schizonts in lymphnodes. (details are given in chapter....).

Clinical signs: The disease occurs in acute form in most of the cases. Initially there is high rise of body temperature which may be intermittent or continuous. The animals reveal inappetance, excessive lacrimation, serous nasal discharge, rapid heartbeat, progressive weakness, marked anaemia and swelling of superficial lymphnodes. The conjunctivae are icteric and had petechial haemorrhages. Haemoglobinuria is not seen but bilirubinaemia and bilirubinuria are present. In diarrhoea often blood is mixed and it has excess mucus. Most of the untreated cases die within 2 weeks due to edema of lungs.

On postmortem examination, pulmonary edema, hyperemia, hydrothorax, emaciation, pale mucus membranes and yellow colouration of tissue are noticed. Spleen, liver and lymphnodes are enlarged while punched ulcers are seen in abomasum and intestine which are pathognomic.

Diagnosis: It is diagnosed by clinical symptoms and confirmed by examination of blood smear prepared at the height of temperature. Smear from lymphnodes may be examined after staining for Koch's blue bodies. Serological tests like capillary agglutination, complement fixation, indirect haemagglutination or ELISA tests are also used for confirmation. Blood examination reveals leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. The disease should be differentiated from anaplasmosis, babesiosis and trypanosomiasis by blood smear examination.

Treatment: Previously, for the treatment of disease chlortetracycline (10-15 mg), rollitetracycline (5-10 mg) or oxytetracycline (10-15 mg/kg body weight) was being used for longer duration. Presently, buparvaquone has been found very effective, if given @ 2.5 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly and repeated after 48 hr. The cost of treatment is high. In addition, use of haematinics and liver tonics is useful in early recovery of case.

Control: A live attenuated vaccine is available against theileriosis, which is given in the calves above 4 months of age. One ml of reconstituted vaccine is given by subcutaneous route and it provides immunity for 1 year.

Posted Date: 9/20/2012 1:28:20 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Theileriosis, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Theileriosis, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Theileriosis Discussions

Write discussion on Theileriosis
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Components of a Balanced Diet Food which we eat, has effect on the growth and development, and the maintenance of normal body functions. Hence, a good balanced diet is needed t

Enzymes and recombinant DNA technology Recombinant DNA technology, also called as genetic engineering makes use of a variety of enzymes, particularly restriction endonucleases

Determine the Binocular movements Binocular movements are those when the relative movements of both eyes are studied together in the directions, e.g., right or left. There are


Metazoan Branches The Kingdom Animalia comprises all the multicellular animals (metazoans). These are divided into three branches: Mesozoa Parazoa Eumetazoa

Explain the Secondary structure of proteins The secondary structure of a protein involves the way that the chain of amino acid either twists or folds back upon itself to form a

Q. What is ancylostomiasis? The Ancylostomiasis is a disease caused by the Necator americanus or Ancylostoma duodenale both hookworms belonging to the nematode phylum (roundwor

I want to know how does our digestive system work

Q. List some points to keep in mind while counselling? 1. Judgment Do not be judgemental. Be a patient listener. Assess and make decision. 2. Patience and Acceptance

levels of biological organization in order from smallest to largest