A standard cost is a predetermined calculation of how much is supposed to be incurred under specific particular working conditions. It is not an average of past costs as these may contain mistakes of past inefficiencies and may not incorporate changes in the business's operating environment like an example as, technological changes. Standard costs are developed from a scientific study of the different production cost elements included in producing a certain god or service. These are generally specified in a product's technical specifications. To develop these costs, one needs to have a good idea or reliable calculation of the materials, labour and other cost levels that will apply throughout a specified period. Standard costs give a basis of cost control via variance analysis. This is one of the leases. This is also the basis of budgeting. Standard costs are applied also in setting prices as well as valuing closing stocks and performance evaluation.