Signaling molecules with intracellular receptors, Biology

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Little  lipophilic  (lipid-soluble)  hormones  distribute  across  the plasma  membrane and  then  interact  with  intracellular  receptors  in  the  nucleus/cytosol.  The receptors are all structurally associated, being part of the nuclear receptor super family.  The resulting hormone-receptor difficult frequently binds to regions of the DNA and affects   the transcription   of particular   genes.  The Small lipophilic  hormones  with intracellular  receptors  includes  the steroid  hormones which  are  synthesized   from  cholesterol  for instance  the  female  sex hormones  estrogen and progesterone,  thyroxine  that is produced  by thyroid cells and is the principal iodinated compound in animals, retinoic acid that is derived  from  vitamin  A,  and  vitamin  D  that  is  synthesized  in  the  skin  in response to sunlight.



               figure:  Cellular signaling. (a) Endocrine, (b) paracrine,  (c) autocrine.

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