Search problems in artificial intelligence, Basic Computer Science

Specifying Search Problems

In our agent terms, a problem to be solved is a particular task where the agent starts with the environment in a given state and acts upon the environment until the transformed state has some pre-set quality. The set of states which are achievable via some sequence of actions the agent job is called the search space. The series of actions that the agent really performs is its search path, and the final state is a solution if it has the required property. There may be many solutions to a specific problem. If you can think of the job you want your agent to perform in these terms, then you ought to write a problem solving agent which uses search.

It is essential to identify the scope of your task in the terms of the problems which will need to be solved. For instance, there are some tasks that are single problems solved by searching, for example, search a route on a map. Otherwise, there are job such as winning at chess, which have to be broken down into sub-problems (finding for the best move at every stage). Other job can be achieved without searching whatsoever for example, multiplying 2 large numbers together - you wouldn't dream of finding through the number line until you came across the answer!

There are 3 initial considerations in problem solving (as described in and Norvig and  Russell):

Initial State

Initially, the agent ought to  be told exactly what the initial state is before it began  its search, so that it may keep track of the state as it searches.

Operators

An operator is a function taking one state to another using an action undertaken by the agent. In chess, for example, an operator takes one arrangement of pieces on the board to another arrangement via  the action of the agent moving a piece.

Goal Test

It is important when designing a problem solving agent to know when the problem has been solved, for example, to have a well defined goal test. Imagine the problem we had set our agent was to find a name for a newborn, with some properties.  There are lists of "accepted" names for babies, in this case and any solution might appear in that list, so goal-checking amounts to minimally testing whether the name appears in the list. On the other hand, In chess, the goal is to reach a checkmate. Wherever there are only a fixed number of ways in which the pieces on a board may represent a checkmate, the number of these is large, so checking a position against them is a terrible idea. Instead, a more abstract notion of checkmate is used, whereby our agent checks that the opponent's king cannot move without being captured.

Posted Date: 10/2/2012 1:55:09 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Search problems in artificial intelligence, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Search problems in artificial intelligence, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Search problems in artificial intelligence Discussions

Write discussion on Search problems in artificial intelligence
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Accessing Other Computers The advanced networking features of Windows combined with the easy to use user interface make the task of sharing information with other computers/us

what is input and output device? explain meaning of input and output devices

QUESTION a) Cryptography is a set of techniques and mathematical algorithms. Describe four important areas where cryptography must be applied b) What is the importance of us

Subject Name CIT2193 COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE Topic ASSIGNMENT Due Date 16 March 2012 Name : ……….…………………….……………….. Lecturer : ................................. Intake : ………………….

im student of BSCS 1st semester and I have to make project for IT fair and I dont know computer that very much so please I required your help, help me if you can. thanks


QUESTION (i) Define each of the following terms: a) Book trade catalogue b) Stocktaking c) Ephemera d) Contracting out e) Special library (ii) Discuss the adv

function of arithmetic logic unit

what is the difference between internet and world wide web?

Question (a) Describe the following built-in functions and illustrate each using simple examples. Specify every possible parameters where required Replace() StrComp()