Scientific and Technical Achievements of Bronze Age:
The major technical advance that accompanied the rise of cities was the discovery and use of metals, particularly copper and its alloy bronze. Simultaneously, trade between societies flourished and gave rise to better forms of transport. The wide range of services involved in the operations of a city gave rise to a qualitative change which marks the beginning of conscious science. This was possible, because this initial phase of development required that the practitioners of techniques and the priests who did only mental work solve problems together. Recording of numbers or quantities of goods, standardising their measures, counting and calculating, making of calendars etc. form the basis of quantitative science in the Bronze Age. We shall now study each of these features, in brief. The Use of Metals Human beings were attracted by shiny gold and copper which are found free in nature and used them originally as ornaments. Bits of metal have been found in necklaces and other ornaments of Stone Age. However, copper nuggets beaten to different shapes were not of much practical use as tools and weapons, as they were too soft. With the development of fire kilns needed for making pottery, copper ores which could be easily reduced were used to produce copper metal. Later, an alloy of copper and tin was discovered. It was harder and stronger than copper and could be cast into tools and weapons. Casting was done by pouring molten copper and tin mixture into vessels or "moulds". When the mixture was allowed to cool, it took the shape of the pot. Some of the tools thus made were found to be far superior to stone tools and weapons, and were easier to produce. The use of this new metal meant revolution in many techniques, such as carpentry, masonry, making tools, vessels, vases etc.