Reviews and Surveys
A review is a survey of the primary literature in a specific subject field covering specific period. It may be considered as a critical synthesis of the state of knowledge or advances in a given subject or its sub-discipline, In other words, reviews and surveys are critical examination of information and literature on a particular subject or topic. They are often considered the highest level of intellectual reprocessing of information. A critical or an evaluative review or survey done by a specialist often highlights gaps in the research field and suggests new avenues for research. They not only cover what has been published but also stimulate thinking.
Reviews are of two kinds. (1) The bibliographic reviews, which emphasize bibliographic approach evaluating continuation in a subject or subject-oriented approach (2) Focussing on specific scientific or technical problem and its solution. Many of the reviews combine together these aspects.
Reviews appear in different forms and vary in frequency. The most well known are the annual series in specific subject fields. Annual Reviews Inc., California, US is a publisher interested in the advancement of the sciences. It has published high quality, economically priced Annual Review volumes in more than 25 major disciplines such as Physical and Natural Sciences, Medicine and related Sciences, Computer Science, Psychology, Sociology, Public health and so on. The volumes are organised by editors and editorial committees who invite eminent authors to contribute critical articles reviewing significant developments within each major discipline. They also appear in quarterly or monthly review journals, Reviews also appear as articles in primary journals. The titles of these type of reference sources contain terms like, Review of..., Annual Review of...., World Review of..., International Review of..., Review of Research in....., etc.