Observation Sampling Technique:
Since it is usually impossible to observe behaviour for extended period of time because of fatigue and boredom one must plan how and when to make the observalion. The most commonly used techniques are:
i) Time Sampling Method: This procedure involves the selection of time periods during which the observation will take place. One decides the day into units that are appropriate for observation. The time frame may be systematically selected e.g. one can observe intermittently at 10 minutes interval for 8 hours a day or intermittent instantaneous observation may be carried out at 10 minutes interval for 24 hours. Time frames can be selected at random. Here it is important that the researcher uses some system of signal when the observer should start looking and when to stop.Duration of observation should be decided before hand.
ii) Event Sampling: When we want to observe an entire event in order to give the subject the opportunity to perform all of the expected behaviours. The observer selects integral behaviour or event of a pre-specified type of observation. Researcher either requires to know the occurrence of event or be in a position to wait for their occurrence e.g. a researcher observed aseptic practices in urinary catheterization where she observed the full procedure against the steps listed under different areas of procedure e.g. washing and drying hands, wearing gloves, etc. Slhe carried out observation in surgical ward, surgical O.P.D., casualty department.