It can be designated as enterotoxaemia of chickens, turkeys and ducks caused by Clostridium perfringens. The toxin released by this spore-bearing anaerobic organisms results in fibrino-necrotic enteritis. Mortality is variable but usually low. Infection occurs after consumption of feces-contaminated feed or water. The infection occurs mostly in birds fed with high protein diet, low water consumption and overcrowded flocks where impaction of food favours anaerobic bacteria to colonize and release the toxin.
Symptoms and lesions
Depression, inappetance, immobility and sudden death in good condition are the only signs noticed. In survived birds, dark colored diarrhea may be seen. PM lesions include thickened intestinal mucosa with crest and distended small intestine filled with necrotic material. Affected birds tend to be dehydrated and show higher rate of autolysis.
Diagnosis: Mortality pattern, gross lesions and presence of a large number of Gram positive bacilli in the affected portion would be adequate to arrive at conclusion if the other major infections are ruled out.
Prevention and control: Biosecurity, healthy diet and management and hygiene would prevent the occurrence. Use of probiotics may help in preventing colonization of bacteria and toxin production.