Mycoplasmosis-contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (ccpp), Biology

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Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP)

Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) is the main causative agent of caprine pleuropneumonia, a serious malady of goats in our country. While, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, which has not been found yet in India but is prevalent in Mediterranean countries, the Middle-East, Nigeria, Mexico, Russia, China and Myanmar (Burma). The mortality rate is up to 90% in the infected flock. The infected animals are also become a source of infection to other healthy animals by air-borne route. The incubation period is about 4 days to 4 weeks. The affected animals become dull, and show the signs of pyrexia, labored breathing, continuous nasal discharge, coughing, diarrhoea with rapid loss of condition. The lung lesions are similar to those seen in bovine pleuropneumonia, showing hepatiziation and thickened interlobular septa. Pleurisy with effusions is a constant lesion. The bronchial and mediastinal lymphnodes show congestion and edema.

The diagnosis is carried out by isolation and identification of organisms, postmortem lesions along with the seromonitoring. However, the isolation of causal organism from affected tissues is difficult and tedious. Number of serological tests, viz. slide agglutination  (SAT), double immuno diffusion (DID), indirect heamagglutination (IHA), complement fixing (CFT) and enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) are also routinely used for diagnosis of disease. It can be controlled by slaughter of infected and contact goats, through disinfections of infected premises and vaccination of goats. Experimentally, the killed vaccine has been developed and provided protection up to 12 month period. A large number of Mycoplasma species have been isolated from goats causing edematous lesions, polyarthritis and mastitis. Among them, M. agalactiae causes contagious agalactia in sheep and goats. The disease spreads by ingestion or teat canal causing infections of joints, eyes and udder of lactating animals. The disease occurs in India, Pakistan, Iran, Sudan, Russia and the Far East. The animals of any age suffer from this disease. The incubation period is 5-7 days. There is a rise in temperature, listlessness and inappetence. The affected animal may die at this stage, or the disease may develop in localized areas including joints of lower limbs, eyes and udders of lactating animals. The milk yields decreases followed by small quantities of purulent secretions and development of fibrosis in udder. The diagnosis is based on isolation of the organisms from udder secretions, joint fluid or blood. Contagious agalactia can be controlled by slaughtering of the infected animals, disinfection of the areas and vaccination of the herd. Vaccination has been attempted to produce active immunityin the flock.

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