Retained foetal membranes
The foetal membranes are normally expelled within 6to 12 hr after parturition in cows and buffaloes. If the foetal membranes are not voided even upto 24 hr they are said to be retained and the animals require urgent attention by a veterinarian for their removal manually. Possible causes of retained foetal membranes are, abnormal parturition (i.edystocia, premature birth, excessively large fetus, cesarean section or uterine tension, stillbirth, abortion, early births and toxins), uterine inertia, hypocalcaemia (milk fever), selenium, vitamins A, E, calcium, phosphorous or carotene deficiency, high-hay ration, poor quality forage or lack of fresh forage, specific infections (brucellosis, IBR, BVD, leptospirosis and neospora), contagious, non- specific infections (salmonella, fungus, and Actinomyces pyogenes), and placental infections. Some times over-conditioned status, excessive corn silage fed to dry cows (over 50% of forage dry matter intake), overfeeding grain to dry cows (greater than 0.5% of bodyweight), excessive calcium from too much legume forage fed to dry cows (over 25to 30% of forage dry matter intake), can also lead to higher incidence of fetal membranes retention. Optimum feeding prepartum is therefore important for minimizing the risk of retention of fetal membranes.