Explain the universality of the genetic code, Biology

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How does the universality of the genetic code make the recombinant DNA technology possible?

The universality of the genetic code refers to the fact that all living beings have their protein synthesis machinery functioning according to the similar principles of transmission, storage and recognition of information, including translation of mRNA codons. This fact creates possible the exchanging of genes or gene fragments between different organisms and secures that these genes continue to command protein synthesis.

This universality, for instance, makes feasible the insertion of a fragment of human DNA having a gene for the production of a given protein into the genetic material of bacteria. As the bacterial transcription and translation systems work in the similar manner as the correspondent human systems do, the bacteria will begin to synthesize the human protein related to the put in DNA fragment. There are industries that make human insulin (for use by diabetic patients) in this way, synthesized by bacteria with changed DNA. If the genetic code was not universal this kind of genetic manipulation would be impossible or very complex to accomplish without new technological progresses.

 


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