Example of structural hazards - computer architecture, Computer Engineering

Example of Structural hazards - computer architecture:

A machine has shared a single-memory pipeline for instructions and data. As a consequence, when an instruction which contains a data-memory reference (load), it will conflict with the instruction reference for a afterward instruction

(instr 3):

 

2043_Example of Structural hazards.png

 

To overcome from this problem, we stall the pipeline for 1 clock cycle when a data-memory access take place. The effect of the stall is in fact to occupy the resources for that instruction slot. The following table denoted how the stalls are in fact implemented.

 

2063_Example of Structural hazards1.png

 

2333_Example of Structural hazards2.png

Instr 1 suppose not to be data-memory reference (load or store), or else Instr 3 cannot begin execution for the similar reason as shown above.

To make simple the picture it is also commonly exposed like this:

2171_Example of Structural hazards3.png

Introducing stalls reduced performance as we discussed before.  Why, then, would the designer permit structural hazards? There are 2 reasons:

  • To reduce the latency of the unit. The smaller latency comes from the lack of pipeline registers that introduce overhead.
  • To reduce cost. For instance, machines that support an instruction and a cache both access every cycle (to stop the structural hazard of the above instance) need at least twice of the total memory.

 

Posted Date: 10/13/2012 4:21:25 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Example of structural hazards - computer architecture, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Example of structural hazards - computer architecture, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Example of structural hazards - computer architecture Discussions

Write discussion on Example of structural hazards - computer architecture
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Procedure Level Here, parallelism is obtainable in the form of parallel executable procedures. In that case, design of algorithm plays a key role. E.g. every thread in Java is

What are the main data structures used in the following areas: RDBMS, Network data model and Hierarchical data model? RDBMS = Array (i.e. Array of structures) Network data m

Compare electromechanical switching system with electronic switching system. Comparison of electromechanical switching system with electronic switching systemgiven below:

What is MMU? MMU is the Memory Management Unit. It is a special memory control circuit used for executing the mapping of the virtual address space onto the physical memory.

Q. Introduction to the Operating System? An Operating system is software that creates a relation between the User, Hardware and Software. It is an interface between the all.

How is Transaction Processing System affect performance of e-commerce sites? Transaction Processing System influences performance of e-commerce sites: Transaction-Processing

1. Write the function makegrid. This function accepts a width and height and creates a grid/matrix of cells. The width gives the number of columns and the height the number of rows

GlobalFon is an international communication company, which offers international prepaid calling cards. They introduced three different types of cards, (1) AsiaFon: is cheapest for

Explain at least one modulation technique used for high speed modems. FSK - Frequency Shift Keying: In such technique the frequency of the carrier signal is changed as per to

Q. Explain the Fetch Cycle? The beginning of every instruction cycle is the fetch cycle and causes an instruction tobe fetched from memory.   The fetch cycle comprises four