Example of structural hazards - computer architecture, Computer Engineering

Example of Structural hazards - computer architecture:

A machine has shared a single-memory pipeline for instructions and data. As a consequence, when an instruction which contains a data-memory reference (load), it will conflict with the instruction reference for a afterward instruction

(instr 3):

 

2043_Example of Structural hazards.png

 

To overcome from this problem, we stall the pipeline for 1 clock cycle when a data-memory access take place. The effect of the stall is in fact to occupy the resources for that instruction slot. The following table denoted how the stalls are in fact implemented.

 

2063_Example of Structural hazards1.png

 

2333_Example of Structural hazards2.png

Instr 1 suppose not to be data-memory reference (load or store), or else Instr 3 cannot begin execution for the similar reason as shown above.

To make simple the picture it is also commonly exposed like this:

2171_Example of Structural hazards3.png

Introducing stalls reduced performance as we discussed before.  Why, then, would the designer permit structural hazards? There are 2 reasons:

  • To reduce the latency of the unit. The smaller latency comes from the lack of pipeline registers that introduce overhead.
  • To reduce cost. For instance, machines that support an instruction and a cache both access every cycle (to stop the structural hazard of the above instance) need at least twice of the total memory.

 

Posted Date: 10/13/2012 4:21:25 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Example of structural hazards - computer architecture, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Example of structural hazards - computer architecture, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Example of structural hazards - computer architecture Discussions

Write discussion on Example of structural hazards - computer architecture
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Q. What is Video Card Interfaces? A video interface is the link of video system to rest of the PC. To improve video performance there is required to be an intimate connection betw

Difference between aggregation and association Aggregation is a particular form of association, not an independent concept. Aggregation acts semantic connotations. If two objec

Write the HTML code to accomplish the web page to insert scrollable lists that will always display four entries of the list. The HTML code to accomplish the web page is given b

What is delegation? Delegation gives a proper mechanism to achieve the desired code reuse. The method is caught in the desired class and forwarded to another class for actual i

Define congestion and grade of service. Congestion : This is uneconomic to give sufficient equipment to carry all the traffic which could possibly be offered to a telec

Define the term- encryption The user would then type in O P E and card purchase will be authorised. This extra protection is used as well as encryption. Some of the new syste

Describe the three mapping techniques used in cache memories with suitable Example. The cache memory is a fast memory that is inserted among the larger slower main memory and t

What is recursing downwards? And its ways. The design process generally works top-down; you start with the higher level operations and proceed to describe lower level operation

Q. Write a menu driven program to perform addition and subtraction in base 5. Check that entered numbers are in base 5 or not else error message should be displayed.

What are the advantages of electronic payment system? Advantages of the electronic payment system are illustrated below: This gives good security schemes. Four important sec