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Example of EXCEPT Operator - SQL
Example, like its counterpart in the theory book, illustrates the convenience of allowing any table expression to be the source for an INSERT. It assumes that all the exam scripts submitted by students have been marked and it has been decided to record marks of zero for students who failed to turn up for an exam they should have sat. (Remember that SQL's EXCEPT requires its operands to be of the same degree, unlike NOT MATCHING-hence the third element, 0, of the second operand in the example.)
Example: Awarding zero marks to students who failed to take the exam
INSERT INTO EXAM_MARK
SELECT StudentId, CourseId, 0
Inserting Objects: You can use the INSERT statement to add objects to an object table. In the illustration below, you insert a Person object into the object table persons:
Definition of CROSS JOIN - SQL Let s = t1 CROSS JOIN t2, where t1 and t2 are table expressions optionally accompanied by range variables. Then: Note: Here T denotes Table
IN Operator The operator IN tests the set membership. This means "equal to any member of." The set may have nulls, but they are ignored. For illustration, the statement below do
Using TRIM This process has two forms. The TRIM removes an element from the end of the collection. The TRIM(n) removes the n elements from the end of the collection. For e.g.
Assignment Statement: The assignment statement sets the present value of the variable, parameter, field, or element. The statement consists of an assignment target followed by
set serveroutput on declare a number(5); b number(5); c number(5); begin a:=&a; b:=&b; c:=a/b; dbms_output.put_line(c); exception when zero_d
In Packages The Forward declarations also group logically related subprograms in the package. The subprogram specifications go in the package specification, & the subprogram b
Using Host Arrays The Client-side programs can use anonymous PL/SQL blocks to bulk-bind input and output host arrays. However, this is the well-organized way to pass the colle
Adding Table Constraints ALTER TABLE ENROLMENT ADD CONSTRAINT NameNotNull CHECK (Name IS NOT NULL) ; ALTER TABLE ENROLMENT ADD CONSTRAINT PK_StudentId_CourseId PRIM
Datatype Conversion At times it is necessary to convert a value from one datatype to another. For e.g. if you want to inspect a rowid, you should convert it to a character stri
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