Ephemeral fever, Biology

Ephemeral fever

It is also known as three days sickness and affected animals suffer from pyrexia, muscular stiffness and lameness.

Etiology: The disease is caused by ephemeral fever virus that belongs to rhabdoviridae family. Most of the cases occur in hot and humid environmental conditions and when the mosquito population is high.

Pathogenesis: After entering into circulation, virus multiplies and localizes in the mesodermal tissue such as muscles and joints. There is inflammation of the tissue causing pain and muscle stiffness.

Clinical signs: The infected animals show sudden high rise of body temperature, anorexia and reduction in milk yield. There is increase in the heart and respiration rate, and nasal and ocular discharge. Swelling over muscle area of shoulder, back and neck, shivering, stiffness and clonic muscular movements are noticed. The lameness is also very prominent and animal adopt typical posture of laminitis. Occasionally, animal shows lateral recumbency. Abortions occur in pregnant animals. After 3 days, the body temperature becomes almost normal and they start eating and ruminating.

Hematological analysis reveals leukocytosis, neutrophilia with shift to the left, lymphopenia and increased fibrinogen levels are noticed along with hypocalcemia. Postmortem examination shows accumulation of serofibrinous exudate in synovial, pericardial, pleural and peritoneal cavities. The lymph nodes are enlarged and swollen.

Diagnosis: The disease is diagnosed by clinical signs and examination of blood, and confirmed by serological tests like agar gel precipitation, fluorescent antibody, ELISA and complement fixation tests. It should be differentiated from laminitis, parturient paresis and traumatic reticulitis. In laminitis, there is local pain in feet and this may occur due to excess carbohydrate feeding while parturient paresis usually occurs after parturition and cases respond well to calcium therapy. Traumatic reticulitis can be detected by metal detector if caused by metallic object and its course is quite long. If it is not caused by metallic object, its diagnosis is possible by cardinal signs, X-ray examination and rumenotomy.

Treatment: As the symptoms disappear in 3 days, so usually supportive treatment is recommended. The affected animals are given drugs to relieve the temperature and muscle stiffness. So, paracetamol and phenylbutazone are given by parenteral route. Top recent secondary bacterial infection, broad spectrum antibiotics like streptopenicillin or tetracycline are given.

Control: There is no vaccine available against the disease. The only way to reduce its occurrence is by adopting hygienic measures and reducing the vector population.

Posted Date: 9/19/2012 2:03:00 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Ephemeral fever, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Ephemeral fever, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Ephemeral fever Discussions

Write discussion on Ephemeral fever
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
What is the difference among living and non-living things? Living things obtain and use energy. They also grow throughout their lifetime. Living this is made of cells. Living t

Q. How are ecological interactions classified? Ecological interactions are classified as interspecific or intraspecific interactions and as harmonious or inharmonious interacti

Cytology of Endosperm Normally the young endosperm is triploid as it is formed by the fusion of three haploid nuclei (male gamete + upper polar nucleus + lower polar nucleus)

Adverse effects of menactra The most common adverse reactions to Menactra include headache, fatigue and malaise, in addition to pain, redness and induration at the site of injec

Explain some important phospholipids The chemical structure of  phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) illustrated here in Figure is  typical of  the phosphatides  found in the brai

The biologicaI species concept claims that species consist of natural populations and that species are real and objective. They are not man-made subjective abstraction. According

Q. What is the basic importance of water for enzymatic activity? Ans. Biological catalysts, Enzymes, relay on water to reach their substrates and attach to them. There is

Q. Concerning the nitrogen- containing bases that participate in nucleotides, what is the difference between RNA and DNA? In DNA nucleotides can be formed of thymine (T), adeni

From the following, name the type of mimicry by which a palatable, acceptable insect mimics an unfavorable, noxious insec for protection. a) Batesian mimicry (pron: BATE-see-an

Stabilisation - Climax The whole process of succession results in stabilisation of the vegetation which is now in complete harmony with the environmental complex of that plac