Electrons and holes, Electrical Engineering

Electrons and Holes

  • For T> 0 K, there would be some electrons in the otherwise empty conduction band, and some empty states in the otherwise filled valence band.
  • The empty states in the valence band are referred to as holes.
  • If the conduction band electron and the valence band hole are created by thermal excitation of a valence band electron to the conduction band, then they are called electron-hole pair (EHP).
  • After excitation to the conduction band, an electron is surrounded via a large number of empty states, for example the equilibrium number of EHPs at 300 K in Si is ∼1010/cm3, whereas the Si atom density is ∼1022/cm3 .
  • Thus, the electrons in the conduction band are free to move about via the many available empty states.
  • Corresponding problem of charge transport in the valence band is slightly more complex.
  • Current transport in the valence band can be accounted for by keeping track of the holes themselves.
  • In a filled band, all available energy states are occupied.
  • For every electron moving with a given velocity, there is an equal and opposite electron motion somewhere else in the band.
  • Under an applied electric field, the net current is zero, since for every electron j moving with a velocity Vj , there is a corresponding electron j moving with a velocity - Vj .
  • In a unit volume, the current density J can be given by

1147_Electrons and Holes 1.png (filled band)   (2)

  • where N is the number of electrons/cm3 in the band, and q is the electronic charge.
  • Now, if the jth electron is removed and a hole is created in the valence band, after that the net current density

1055_Electrons and Holes 2.png

  • Thus, the current contribution of the empty state (hole), obtained by removing the jth electron, is equivalent to that of a positively charged particle with velocity Vj.
  • Note that actually this transport is accounted for by the motion of the uncompensated electron j having a charge of q and moving with a velocity Vj.
  • Its current contribution (-q) (-Vj) is equivalent to that of a positively charged particle with velocity + Vj.
  • For simplicity, therefore, the empty states in the valence band are called holes, and they are assigned positive charge and positive mass.
  • The electron energy increases as one move up the conduction band, and electrons gravitate downward towards the bottom of the conduction band.
  • On the other hand, hole energy increases as one moves down the valence band (since holes have positive charges), and holes gravitate upwards towards the top of the valence band.
Posted Date: 1/11/2013 4:30:30 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Electrons and holes, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Electrons and holes, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Electrons and holes Discussions

Write discussion on Electrons and holes
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
T h er e are three main types -   The Shunt Connected DC motor in which the armature coils are connected in parallel with the field coils   The Serie

Give four examples of natural insulating materials. Illustrations of the natural insulating materials are rubber, cotton, wood and mica.

Draw an electrical relay diagram rung showing a N/O contact of CR1(coil) in series witha N/C contact of CR2(Coil), operating a lamp L1. A delay-on (TON) relay has a preset of 5.

Q. Show output Characteristic Of Common Emitter Configuration? Output characteristics: This family of curves may be divided into three regions just as was done for common base

A flyback converter is to be designed so that it operates in continuous "current" (flux) mode with a duty cycle of D = 0.45 when input voltage V s = 48 V, output voltage V o = 30

Explain SAHF instructions in 8086 family with example and their effect on flag. SAHF: Store AH register in flag register, this is an instruction utilized to store the data i

By a simple time multiplexing of natural samples over a single line, a large radar site transmits 85 analog signals, each with 200-Hz bandwidth. If the sampling is done at twice th

Q. Explain the working of a photo - transistor with a sketch A second optoelectronic device that conducts current when exposed to light is the PHOTOTRANSISTOR. A phototransisto

Q. Explain Shunt-field control process? Shunt-field control, armature-resistance control offers a constant-torque drive because both flux and, to a first approximation, allowab

Q. (a) Consider the amplifier block in the circuit configuration of Figure. Find an expression for v 2 /v 1 in terms of R i , R o , and A of the amplifier. (b) Determine the