Effect of individual alloying elements, Mechanical Engineering

Effect of Individual Alloying Elements:


Sulfur is not a needed element in steel since in interferes along with hot rolling and forging resulting in hot-shortness or hot embrittlement. Sulfur however, is useful in rising free cutting nature. Thus sulfur upto 0.33 percent is added in free cutting steel. Or else, sulfur is restricted to 0.05 percent in open hearth or BOF steel and to 0.025 percent in electric furnace steel.


This produces cold shortness that reduces impact strength at low temperature. Hence its percentage is usually restricted to level of sulfur. This is assists in free cutting steels and is added upto 0.12 percent. This enhances resistance to corrosion also.


This is present in all steels but is added upto 5 percent in steels employed as laminates in motors, generators and transformers. For offering toughness this is a significant element in steel utilized for spring, and chisels, punches. It has a good consequence in steel such this combines along with free O2 or oxygen and form SiO2 and raise strength and soundness of steel casting as upto 0.5 percent.


1.2 to 1.4% of this produces extremely tough, wear resistant and non-magnetic steel named as Hadfield steel. This is significant ingredient of free cutting steel upto 1.6 percent. Manganese combines along with S, forming MnS. For this reason Mn should be 3 to 8 times the S. Manganese is effective in raising hardness and harden-ability.


This is good in raising strength, toughness and hardness whilst maintaining ductility.

0.5% of Nickel is good for parts subjected to impact loads at room and extremely low temperatures. Higher amounts of Nickel assist enhance the corrosion resistance in attendance of Chromium as in stainless steel. This in steel result in excellent mechanical properties after annealing and normalizing and thus large structural, castings and forgings parts are made in Ni-steel.


This is common alloying element in tool steels, stainless steel, and corrosion resistant steel as 4% Cr. This forms carbide and usually enhances hardness, wear and oxidation resistant at elevated temperature. This enhances hardenability of thicker sections.


This is commonly present in carburizing steel, heat resisting steel and high speed tool steel. This forms carbide having high wear resistance and retaining strength on high temperatures. Molybdenum generally raises hardeability and assists enhance the effects of other alloying elements like Mn, Nickel and Chromium.


This is significant ingredient of tool steel and heat resisting steel and commonly has similar effects as Mo but 2 to 3 percent W has same effect as 1 percent Mo.


Similar to Mo, V has inhibiting influence on grain development at high temperature. Vanadium carbide possesses water resistance and highest hardness. It enhances fatigue resistance. It is significant constituent of tool steel and possibly will be added to carburizing steel. Harde-ability is markedly increased because of Vanadium.


Addition of this in stainless steel does not allow precipitation of Chromium carbide as Titanium is stronger carbide fixes and former are carbon.


This imparts magnetic property to high Carbon-steel. In the presence of Chromium, Co does not allow scale formation at high temperature with increasing corrosion resistance.


Steel's atmospheric corrosion resistance is increased via addition of 0.1 to 0.6percent copper.


Aluminium in 1 to 3 percent in nitriding steels is added to enhance the hardness via way of forming Al nitride. 0.01 to 0.06 percent Al added during solidification generates suitable grained steel castings.


Very minute percentage like 0.001 to 0.005 of B is effective in raising hardness, mostly in surface hardening boriding treatment.


 Less than 0.35 percent Lead enhances machine-ability.

 The effects of alloying element in respect of several desired effects are summarized underneath:

a.      Hardenability - Si, Manganese, Nickel, Cr, Mo, W, B

b.      Toughness - Si, Ni

c.       High temperature strength - Chromium, Mo, W

d.      Corrosion resistance -Cr, Molybdenum, W

e.      Wear resistance - Chromium, Molybdenum, W, V

f.        Low temperature impact strength - Nickel

g.      Atmospheric corrosion resistance - Copper 

h.      Machin-ability - S, P, Pb

i.        Fatigue strength - V

j.        Surface hardening - Al

Posted Date: 2/26/2013 6:24:47 AM | Location : United States

Related Discussions:- Effect of individual alloying elements, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Effect of individual alloying elements, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Effect of individual alloying elements Discussions

Write discussion on Effect of individual alloying elements
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Importance of operation research in decision making

(a) A mass of 1 kg is to be supported on a spring having a stiffness of 9800N/m. The damping coefficient is 5.9 N-sec/m. Calculate the natural frequency of the system. Determine al

Welding is a material joining process used in making welds and a weld is a localised coalescence of metals or non metals produced either by heating the materials to suitable temper

how is varignons theorem useful in engineering mechanics

EXPLOSIVE WELDING I CLADDING In this process, two pieces of metal are impacted together at an extremely high velocity of impact achieved by the detonation of an explosive cha

Limitations of resistance welding 1). Pressure - tight joints are achieved only with flash butt welding. Resistance welding is not recommended for high pressure joints a

Explain about the footings how it is transmit loads. Footings are generally the lowermost supporting part of the structure known as sub-structure and are the last structural e

This lab sheet is designed to guide students through the experimentation they will need to conduct in order to complete the continual assessment element of their NG3H235 studies.Th

Determine the loading on the beam: Shear force diagram for a loaded beam is illustrated in Figure. Determine the loading on the beam & therefore, draw the bending moment diagr

(a) Explain the terms: full floating, three-quarter floating, semi-floating rear axles and their use in different types of vehicles (b) How does a Hotchkiss drive differ from a