Disorders of gonads, Biology

DISORDERS OF THE GONADS

Hypogonadism. Inadequate gonadal function is called hypogonadism. It is due to defects in, or injury to the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, of the testes or 'ovary. It includes male hypogonadism and female hypogonadism.

(a) Male Hypogonadism. It is due to the deficiency of androgens- male sex hormones (hypofunction of Leydig's cells), deficiency of sperm formation (hypofunction of Sertoli cells) or both, before puberty. As a result male secondary sexual characters and musculature do not develop.

(ii) Female Hypogonadism. It is due to deficiency of oestrogens (female sex hormones) pituitary gonadotropins (LH, FSH or both) or can represent primary ovary failure. It results in the lack of development of female secondary sexual characters.

Precocious Puberty. Early maturation of ovaries and testes with production of ova, before the age of 9 years in girls or sperms before 10 years in boys is called sexual precocity. The causes of sexual pseudoprecocity are excess of sex hormones from the adrenal cortex, testis, ovary or from other sources, including extragonadal tumours.

(a) Sexual pseudoprecocity in boys. It occurs due to excess of testosterone produced by tumours of the testes or adrenal glands. Such boys are characterized by enlargement of penis, masculinisation, early appearance of pubic and axillary hair, faster body growth, etc.

(b) Sexual pseudoprecocity in girls. It occurs due to excess of oestrogens secreted by tumours of ovaries and adrenal glands. Such girls are characterized by breast formation, early appearance of pubic hair. However, the maturation and ovulation do not occur.

Eunuchoidism. Failure of testosterone secretion causes eunuchoidism. A eunuch has (a) undeveloped and non- functional secondary sex organs like prostrate, seminal vesicles and penis, (b) lacks external sex characters such as beard, moustache and low pitch voice and (c) does not produce sperms.

Gynaecomastia (Gr. gyne= woman, mastos= breast). Excessive development of male mammary glands is called gynaecomastia. Sometimes they secrete milk. It results when the secretion of oestrogens is more than androgens. In neonate (new born) and during puberty, gynaecomastia is caused by temporary increase in circulating oestrogens. Deficiency of testosterone in later life may also cause gynaecomastia. This condition is common character of prototherian animals.

Posted Date: 10/2/2012 7:13:00 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Disorders of gonads, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Disorders of gonads, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Disorders of gonads Discussions

Write discussion on Disorders of gonads
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
What are the Results of prosthetic valve endocarditis? The hospital mortality for valve replacement for endocarditis varies between 4- 30 per cent. Operative mortality is highe

Inter-relationships of Classification The aim of classification is to put together organisms on the basis of their similarities. But the question is what type of similarities?

Cleavage and Gastrulation Eventually, one spermatozoon fuses with the ovum to r restore the diploid genomic condition and activates all the potentials in the fertilized egg ce

B o tu l i s m It is a toxicity in chickens, turkeys, ducks and other aquatic birds caused by a bacterial toxin produced by anaerobic bacteria Clostridium botulinum mai

During our discussion of replication origins we took a step-by-step look at the method of cloning DNA fragments into plasmids . Based on your knowledge of this discussion which

Explain the process by which the kidney varies the volume and concentration of urine

What are autotrophic beings? What are heterotrophic beings? Autotrophic beings are those that can make their own food, i.e., that make organic material from inorganic compounds

Pressure Gradient You know that air pressure is the weight of the atmosphere over a unit area of the earth's surface. The average air pressure at sea level is approximately 1 k

Q. Percentage ratio of ash in honey? Standards allow ash content in honey up to 0.5 per cent, but the ash of genuine honey seldom exceeds 0.35 per cent. It is determined by cha

Define about the Sporocyst Larva? Sporocyst is the second larval stage in the life cycle of F. hepatica. It develops from the miracidium larva within the pulmonary chamber of