DEFECTS OF HEART
1. Blue Baby syndrome (Cyanosis) - Due to persisting foramen ovalis in atrial septum even after birth, the impure blood from right auricles comes to left auricle and then into left ventricle from where it is supplied to the body increasing the bluishness of the body.
2. Heart Block (Cardiac Arrest) - If the S-A node becomes defective it cannot generate impulse properly and the heart beat becoems irregular or may stop. This is corrected by implanting artificial electronic pacemaker in the chest.
3. Murmuring Heart - Due to defects in valves instead of the normal lub-dup sound the murmuring sound appears as the symptom.
4. Mitral stenosis - Due to defect of mitral valve passage of blood through A-V aperture, becomes improper.
5. Regurgitation - Due to improper closure of A- V aperture, some blood during ventricular systole reenters the auricle. Cardiac valves may be defective by birth or may get damaged due to Staphylococcal infection (rheumatic fever). This can be repaired or replaced surgically.
6. Angina pectoris - Due to blockage or thickening of coronary vessel's wall there is inadequate blood flow to heart muscles associated with pain in heart during exertion or emotional tension. The blockage may be due to deposition of cholesterol, smoking, diabetes or various other factors. Similar defect is also termed as coronary thrombosis when coronary vessels are blocked by blood clots.
7. Brown's Heart Disease (Brown's Atrophy) - Excess lipid (or lipofuschin) level in blood causes its deposition in coronary vessels which atrophy and causes symptoms as above.
8. Hooping heart - Sometimes improper rhythms in heart beat occur, this is generally the indication of heart attack.
9. Myocardial Infarction (Heart attack) - Insufficient blood supply to part of cardiac muscles may cause death of that part. From damagec heart muscle cells certain enzymes leak hence their presence in plasma is very simple diagnostic feature for heart attack, these enzymes are lactate dehydrogenase and transaminase.
10. Dextrocardia - If the heart is placed towards right side in the thoracic cavity as born defect.
11. Ectopia cordis - Sometimes heart becomes located outside the thoracic cavity as born defect.