Congenital anomalies of small and large intestines, Biology

Congenital Anomalies of Small and Large Intestines:

1) Intussusecption 

Intussusecption  is the invagination or telescoping  of one part of  the intestine into another part of  the intestine just beyond it or distal to it leading to the impairment of blood supply and necrosis of involved segment (Fig. 2.9). It is the most common cause of  intestinal obstruction during the first two years of  life. There are  three  forms of  intussuception, ileocolic, ileoilac and colocolic. Of  these three, ileocolic  is most common  in which the ileum invaginates into the'cecum and then into the ascending:  colon.  

Etiology:

The cause is usually unknown. Predisposing factors include acute enteritis, meckel's diverticulum, parasites, constipation, foreign body,  inspissated fecal matter in cystic fibrosis, lymphoma and infection with rotavirus or adenovirus. 

Assessment:

Child will present with episodic abdominal pain, which can be assessed by kicking movement of legs and drawing them up towards abdomen, vomiting and rectal passage of bloody mucus; the current jelly stool, fever and prostration. Abdomen is tender and distended. lnitially the infant may be comfortable between episodes of pain but later on infant becomes weak and  lethargic and a shock like condition develops. Fever rises to 41°C. On palpation of abdomen, a sausage shaped mass may be felt in the right upper quadrant. On rectal examination a ring of  intestine may be felt if  the intussuscepting part has reached  to the rectum. Diagnostic evaluation includes barium enema that shows the intestinal obstruction and rectal examiniation reveals blood and mucus. 

Pathophysiology 

When an upper portion of  the bowel invaginates into the lower portion, the mesentry  is carried into the lumen of the intesfine. The blood supply is cut off and necrosis and oedema occurs. This  results in  intestinal obstrucion. The end ol"  the invaginating part of intesting may extend into  transverse, descending or sigmoid colon or even to  the anus. There may be bleeding from the mucosa resulting in bloody stool. In some infants there may be spontaneous  teduction but in some cases strangulation of  the bowel may occur and child may have necrosis and perforation leading to peritonitis and death.  

Posted Date: 10/26/2012 7:43:26 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Congenital anomalies of small and large intestines, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Congenital anomalies of small and large intestines, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Congenital anomalies of small and large intestines Discussions

Write discussion on Congenital anomalies of small and large intestines
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Name the various Test batteries Test batteries typically assess the following domains: General cognitive ability Language ability Visuoperceptual and constructi

Long-term responses - Behaviour of Plants Plants alter their course of development to suit the prevailing environmental conditions. For example, leaf maturation and fall, onse

Techniques of Plant Tissue Culture A standard tissue culture laboratory should provide facilities for washing and storage of glass ware, preparation and storage of nutrient

EMBRYONI C MEMBRANES - Such animals are called amniota. Embronic membranes are of 4 types - (i) Yolk sac - It is formed below the embryo. It contains fluid (no yolk

Models for enzyme-substrate  (ES) complex formation There are two popular models to explain the enzyme-substrate interaction. These are: a) Fischer's template or lock and ke


Explain about the Dietary Reference Intakes? Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are relatively new to the field of nutrition. The DRIs are a set of four nutrient-based reference


Define the Bioavailability of Vitamins? The term bio availability refers to the overall efficiency of utilization, including physiological and biochemical processes involved in

Ecological Significance - Conservation of Wildlife  Besides serving as a valuable genetic reservoir, each species interacts with other species and plays a role in the transfe