COMMON RESPIRATORY DISORDERS:
Respiration is one of the most vital functions of the body. The purpose of respiration is to provide oxygen ta the body cells and to remove excess carbon dioxide from the body cells. Respiratory nursing is a challenging practice area if you are able to understand the common problems related to respiratory system. You may need to review the Anatomy and Physiology of the respiratory system in detail as it is discussed very briefly in this unit. In this unit you are going to learn about the common problems of patients with the respiratory disease and nursing measures to be taken to solve the problems.
Nose and Paranasal Sinuses:
Nose is supported by the nasal bones, nasal processes of the maxillary bones, the cartilaginous and bony parts of the septum, and the upper and lower nasal cartilages. The nasal cavities are located between the roof oi' the mouth and the frontal, ethmoid and sphenoid bones. The three projections called the turbinate bones are located on the lateral walls of the nasal cavities and lined with mucous membrane. These provide a large surface area with a rich blood supply. The anterior part of the nose is called the vestibule which extends posteriorly a short distance to a point at which its lining changes from skin to mucous membrane containing ciliated epithelium.
The nasal septum divides the nasal cavity into right and left. The olfactory epithelium is located in a small area superiorly and provides the end-organ of smell. Four sets of paranasal sinuses are located on either side of the head. These sinuses are air filled spaces in the skull that serve to lighten the head. They are lined with mucous membrane that is continuous with that of the nose. The sinuses drain into the nasal cavities through the opening behind the trubinates.
Functions of the nose and nasal sinuses are to warm, moisten and filter incoming air, to house receptors for olfaction and to promote vocal resonance.