Calculate the fragmentation offset for fragment
Course:- Computer Networking
Reference No.:- EM131984999

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Question 1 - Routing

Given the following network diagram, assume that all the networks shown are aware of each other and have fully updated routing tables. Answer the questions that follow.


The questions:

1. From the point of view of router R4, what is the next-hop address for a packet addressed to host

2. From the point of view of router R1, which of its interfaces would it choose for a packet being sent to network

3. A host with an IP address of has just sent a packet to a host with address How many hops is required between source and destination?

4. A packet originating from network arrives at router R1, however, R1 determines that the destination network is not in its routing table. What does R1 do with the packet?

5. A packet arrives at router R2 with a destination address of Which interface port does R2 forward the packet out of?

6. A packet at router R3 has a destination address of What next-hop address would R3 use for this packet?

7. A packet is waiting at router R4 for forwarding. If the next-hop was a "direct delivery", which of these three networksis the destination network?, or, or

8. Complete the information in the routing table for router R2 as shown in the Answer Template for networks,, and the Default network. Show the masks in longest mask order using CIDR format.

Question 2 - Fragmentation in IPv4

An IPdatagram5,400 bytes long with no options arrives at a router, which determines that the next destination has an MTU of 1,500 bytes.Use the Answer Template to complete the following questions, showing your calculations and reasoning.

a) Assuming that the router decides to fragment the packet into 4 fragments, determinea correct size for each fragment, and identify the starting byte and ending byte of each fragment.

b) Calculate the fragmentation offset for each fragment.

c) State whether the total number of bytes from all 4 fragments leaving the router will be greater than the initial datagram size that arrived, or less than the initial datagram size, and the reason.

Question 3 - Congestion controls in TCP

This question affords you the opportunity to extend your thinking about congestion controls in TCP beyond the textbook to observe what a real-world technology company, Google, is doing in this space.

First, read this Network World article that reports on Google's approach to improving congestion controls in TCP: "How Google is speeding up the Internet"

You should also read the following more technical paper about it: "BBR Congestion Control - draft-cardwell-iccrg-bbr-congestion-control-00"

After reading both articles, answer the following questions:

1. Write a brief summary of the congestion controls currently available in TCP as covered in this Unit

2. Identify and explain two problems with current congestion controls in TCP that are pointed out in the articles

3. Summarize in your own words the difference(s) between the current TCP congestion controls and Google's new BBR protocol

4. The Network World article points out that it is difficult to get a new protocol accepted as a global standard for TCP/IP. Why do you think this is the case? Give carefully thought out reasons for your answer.

Important: for every direct quotation you use from these two sources or any other source, you must immediately, after the quote, provide your own explanation of the quotation (for example, explain why are you quoting it, how does it help answer the question, how does it support what you are saying?) - marks will be deducted for failure to do so. In addition, correct referencing conventions must be used throughout your work using the Harvard referencing convention. Your answers will be marked on clarity, logic, relevance, use of own words and fully addressing all parts of each question.

Remember that quotations alone will not be accepted as your explanation of the questions. Quotations can support your explanations, but you must still provide the explanations yourself. Best way forward is to keep direct quotations to a minimum, and use your own words.

Attachment:- Template.rar

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