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Engineering Thermodynamics Assignment Help, Thermodynamics Homework, Projects Help
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Thermodynamic is basically the study of energy. The study of energy which transfers within systems is called introductory thermodynamics. The methods and constructs that are used for accounting the macroscopic energy transfer are contained in classical thermodynamics. Basically there forms of energies are studied in thermodynamics.
1. Kinetic energy-the energy of a mass that is moving is called kinetic energy. The kinetic energy is derived form the mass of the material and velocity.
2. Potential energy-the potential energy of a substance depends on its height and mass, and also on the gravity of the earth. That is why, the potential energy of an object decreases on moon than on earth (as moon has lower gravitational pull).
3. Internal energy- internal energy of a matter is decided by the temperature it has. A hot water bottle has more internal energy than a cold water bottle.
A well defined set of materials or matter is called thermodynamic system. A system in which the matter can cross the boundary is called open system whereas a system in which no matter leaves or enters a given boundary is called closed system. The degree of freedom of a system depends on minimum number of variables required to describe a system. Some examples of these variables are pressure, density, temperature etc. When the state of a system changes it is termed as a process. When the initial and final stages of a process are same, the process is called a cyclic process. A reversible process can also run in reverse with no change in its system and surroundings. And when the process is unable to run in reverse direction, it is called irreversible process. The process in which the temperature remains constant is called isothermal process.
The three laws of thermodynamics
The zeroth law- If two thermodynamic systems, A and B are in thermal equilibrium and one of them , for example B is in thermal equilibrium with another thermodynamic system C , then A and C are also in thermal equilibrium.
First law of thermodynamics- The law states that when the heat and work interactions occur between a closed system and its environment, then the algebraic sum of wok and heat interactions for a given cycle of the closed system is zero. This implies that the energy of a system can neither be created no can be destroyed.
Second law of thermodynamics- All spontaneous events occurring in a system increase the total entropy of a system. Thus, the entropy of the universe always increases.
Third law of thermodynamics- At absolute zero, the entropy of the system is zero.
Applications of engineering thermodynamics
One component systems-all materials exist in either solid liquid or gaseous phase and all one component systems share certain characteristics. In a system where liquid and vapor coexist, it is called a saturated state. When the liquid and vapor are in equibillrium, the pressure is called saturation pressure and the temperature is called saturation temperature. When the temperature of a gas or vapor is greater than the saturation temperature, it is termed as superheated vapor. The study of air and water vapor mixtures used for air conditioning is called psychometry. The air in this study is approximated for containing nitrogen and oxygen only as other gases in air are contained in small amounts.
Some common cycles used in engineering thermodynamic applications
Rankine cycle- It is also called the standard vapor power cycle and in this cycle, the working fluid follows a closed cycle.
Otto cycle- The idealization of the process which is found in reciprocating internal combustion engines is called the Otto cycle. Most automobiles use this cycle of thermodynamic application.
Diesel cycle- In diesel cycle heat is supplied at constant pressure. It is the ideal cycle for compression ignition engines (those not requiring spark plug).
Gas turbine cycle- Gas turbines are basically rotary internal combustion engines. The air which is introduced from out side is compressed by a compressor and then the fluid is introduced and the resultant mixture of air and fuel is ignited in the chamber. The turbine expanded by hot gases produces work. The turbine output is exhausted by an exhaust system.
Refrigeration cycle-an ideal refrigeration cycle is the reverse of Carnot cycle and works as a heat pump instead of a heat engine. The gas refrigeration cycle is used in an aircraft for cabin cooling. Rankine vapor compressor cycle is also used in other refrigerating units.
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