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. All you embedded systems related problems and questions can be solved here with best possible answers. Embedded systems are designed to undertake a few specific or dedicate systems in real time computing constraints. The devices in which they are embedded include hardware and software parts. Many devices of common use today have embedded systems incorporated in them. The processing parts which control the embedded systems are micro processors or digital signal processors (DSP). Sometimes they also require extensive communication networks and more powerful processors, as in an air traffic control system, but their key characteristic remains being designed to handle a particular and specific task. They are often optimized by the design engineers for reduction in cost or size. Some of them are also mass produced for getting the benefits of economies of scale. Some examples of embedded systems are mp3 players, digital watches, traffic lights and traffic controllers. As we can see, they can be applied to both simple and complex systems. They are especially suited for consumer electronics, transportation systems, medical equipment, fire safety, transportation, safety and security as they can be isolated from hacking and made more reliable. They are also more self sufficient.
History and evolution of embedded systems
The first modern recognizable embedded system was the Apollo guidance compute. It was developed by Charles Strake Drape at the MIT instrumentation laboratory. Since it employed the then newly developed monolithic integrated circuits for reduced size and weight, it was considered the riskiest item in the Apollo project. The earliest mass produced embedded system was called the Autobetics d-17 guidance computer which was designed for minuteman missile. It was released in the year 1961. The first microprocessor was the INTEL 4004. It was designed for calculators and similar small systems. It required external memory and support chips. The standard for programmable micro controllers was released in the year 1978 by national engineering manufactures association of USA. The microcontroller designed in the mid 1980’s had all the previously external components integrated on a single chip, which increase it usage to various other devices and gadgets.
Basic characteristics of embedded systems
1. They are designed to do specific tasks and have real time constraints to be met.
2. They are very seldom standalone devices and often a series of small, computerized parts which are part of a larger device serving more general purpose.
3. Firmware is the name given to program systems which are written for embedded systems. These instructions are stored in flash memory or read only chip.
4. They have limited computer resources like small or non existent screen or keyboard and a little memory.
The user interface of embedded systems
The user interface of embedded system varies from a non user interface for an embedded system which is dedicated to only one task to much more complex graphical user interfaces which are like modern computer desktop operating systems. The simple devices use buttons, LED characters, graphic LCD’s along with a simple menu. The handheld systems have a joystick on screen where as more complex devices have touch sensing or screen edge buttons.
The processors in the micro computers
The embedded microprocessors are divided not two categories. These are the microprocessors and the microcontrollers. The micro controllers have much more peripherals on the chip in comparison to the microprocessors. CPU architectures of a large number and types are used in embedded systems. Von Neumann, Harvard architecture, RISC and VLIW are some examples. The word length can vary beyond 64 bit and several companies manufacture architectures which come in different shape and variants.
Ready made computer boards for embedded systems
Ready made computer boards which are intended for small and low volume embedded systems are pc/104 and pc/104+, which serve as a standard. In comparison to a standard pc they are most often physically small. But in comparison to the most simple 8/16 bit embedded systems, they are quite large. The languages used a Linux, net BSD, and MSDOS. The language of embedded operating systems could also be used such as MICRO/OS-II, QNX or the VxWORKS. These boards also use non-X86 processors also.
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