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Analog Circuit Theory

Analog circuits are electronics systems which have a continuously variable signal. The term analog is derived for the Greek work analogos which means proportional and is used to describe the proportional relationship between the signal and the voltage or the current that is representing the signal. Before the invention of microprocessors, the analog circuits were designed by using in hand calculations. These involved not more than 10 transistors and were simple circuits. But after the year 1970, when computer processing became available, which was cheaper and less costly, the circuit designs now had more specific designs and were easy to stimulate. SPICE i.e. Simulation Program with Integrated Circuits Emphasis was the first circuit stimulator for analog integrated circuits.

Analogue signals use the attributes of the medium for conveying the information of the signal. The information of the electrical system is represented by the change in their voltage, frequency, current or the total charge. A transducer is used for this purpose which helps in converting one type on energy into another. A good example for this is a microphone. From a given range, a signal can take any value and different information is represented by each unique signal. A different level of phenomenon is represented by each unique signal. This makes any change in signal meaningful. For example, if a signal is representing temperature, one volt would be representing one degree Celsius.

Modulation is one other way to convey analogue signals. In modulation, property alteration occurs in some base carrier signal. There are two types of modulations, the amplitude modulation and the frequency modulation. The frequency modulation causes a frequency change while amplitude modulation leads to altering of the amplitude of a sinusoidal waveform. Analogue signals can also be used in pneumatic, hydraulic and mechanical signals. The random thermal vibrations of the atomic particles lead to random disturbances and variations which cause noise in an analog circuit. Low noise amplifiers and shielding are used to reduce these disturbances.

Analog versus digital circuit

Almost all operations that are performed by and analogue signal like amplification, limiting, filtering etc can also be performed in the digital domain and circuit. The behavior of any digital circuit can be explained by using the rules of an analog circuit. The first electronics devices which were designed were all analog, but now the reduction in the cost of the digital techniques has made their adaptation more feasible. Digital electronics also provides added precision to a signal since it uses additional digits for signal representation. The signals can be converted from digital to analog or from analog to digital by using converters. Analog circuits need designing by hand and also require more skill which makes their designing more difficult than that of digital circuits which are designed using automated processes. This is the main reasons why the digital circuits are replacing the automated circuits exponentially. But any digital electronic circuit also needs an analog interface. Thus the importance of analog circuits could not be underestimated.

Advantages and types of analog circuits

The analog circuits use less energy, thereby involving lesser heat consumption and hence decreasing the complexity of the systems. They are also cheaper than digital circuits. The analog circuits involve lesser amount of errors also and no major changes in data occur if a small error happens. This makes analog circuit error proof and cost efficient. They also are the components used for designing digital circuits. There are two types of analog circuits, the discrete analog circuit and the integrated analog circuit. The difference between the two is that the analog integrated circuit is integrated fully into a single monolithic piece of silicon. The designer of the analog integrated circuit has to work within the constraints of circuit elements, the value range and the tolerance level. Some other analog circuit and sub circuits include basic analog sub circuits, analog current building blocks and analog current functional blocks.