What is molecular reasons for this functional difference

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1. Both glycogen and cellulose are polyglucose molecules.
a. Draw the basic structure of each (two glucose units in the main chain and one in the branch is sufficient), numbering all atoms
b. Compare and contrast the function of these related compounds
c. What is/are the molecular reasons for this functional difference?
d. How do you suppose a cell can make these two separate molecules without making errors such as glycogen-cellulose hybrid molecules?

2. Diagram the pathway of Glycolysis from glucose to pyruvate, giving structures and names of all pathway intermediates (enzyme mechanisms are not required) and names of enzymes (no abbreviations). Indicate where ADP, ATP, Pi, NAD+, or NADH is a substrate or product of a reaction.

3. a. List substrates and products for the reaction catalyzed by Phosphofructokinase. b. Diagram and explain the dependence of Phosphofructokinase reaction rate on [fructose-6-phosphate], at low and high [ATP]. Explain the value to a cell of the effect of high [ATP] on Phosphofructokinase.

4. a. List substrates and products for the reaction catalyzed by Hexokinase. b. How does the liver Glucokinase enzyme differ from Hexokinase in its dependence on concentrations of reactant(s) and/or product(s)? How is this important to the role of the liver in regulating blood glucose?

5. a. Why would it be disadvantageous to an organism to have Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis operating simultaneously within a cell? b. Briefly describe one example of reciprocal regulation of Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis, involving an allosteric regulator. For the example chosen, write out the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme in each pathway, and indicate the nature of the effect of the regulator (e.g., inhibition or activation).

6. Describe the sequence of reactions catalyzed by the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase enzyme complex. Provide a diagram showing structures of the relevant portions of major intermediates at each step. Include the role of each of the various cofactors and prosthetic groups of E1, E2, and E3. What is the nature and the role of the "long swinging arm" that includes lipoamide and its attachment to the complex?

Reference no: EM13934783

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