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Water Resource Engineering

The discipline of water resource engineering studies the various aspects of collection and management of water in a natural resource form. It involves various subjects such as environment science, geology, resource management, conservation etc. This area of civil engineering predicts and manages the quantity as well as the quality of water of both above ground resources (streams, rivers, lakes,) and underground resources (aquifers). The water resource engineers conduct the analysis and then devise models of large and small areas of earth for the prediction of the content and the amount of water during its flow through, into or out of a facility. The real and actual design of the facilities is a many a times left to engineers from other fields. The primary and main concern of the hydraulic engineering is the conveyance of fluids, principally water. This area of civil engineering deals with the design of pipelines, drainage facilities, the water supply network, canals and the drainage facilities like dams, bridges, culverts, levees, and storm severs channels etc. These facilities are designed by using the concepts of fluid statistics, fluid pressure, fluid dynamics, hydraulics and many more.

These systems use gravity in its extensive form as the principal motive force which causes the movement of fluids. The discipline of hydraulic engineering applies the principles of fluid mechanics for dealing with the problems of fluid (mainly water) storage and collection, transport, control, measurement, regulation and its usage. Thus, at the start of every engineering project, the hydraulic engineer figures out the quantity of water involved. He also considers other aspect such as sediment transportation by the river, the scour and deposition occurrence and the interaction between water with the alluvial boundary. The hydraulic engineer then actually develops the conceptual designs for the different features that interact with water which can be highway culverts, dam’s outlet works; the irrigation’s projects related structures along with canals as well as the cooling water facilities specially designed for the thermal power plants. Some fundamental principles of hydraulic engineering include fluid flow, fluid mechanics, real fluid behavior, pipelines, hydrology, open channel hydraulics, physical modeling, drainage hydraulics and hydraulic machines etc.Fluid mechanics-the fundamentals of hydraulic engineering have defined hydrostatics as the study of fluid at rest. When a fluid is at rest, it has force acting upon its surroundings which is known as pressure. This pressure is not constant through out the body of fluid, varies and is measured in Newton per meter square. With the increase in depth the pressure increases.

Behavior of real fluids

There are two types of fluids, the real and the ideal fluid. For ideal fluids p (1) =p (2) and for real flow p1>p2. An ideal fluid does no deform under shear force while a viscous fluid will. The disturbance effects on viscous flow are stable, unstable or transitional. If w\e assume that the fluid is bounded on one of its side and parallel to the flow is rectilinear flow which passes over a stationery flat plate, then the flow which is just upstream of the plate flows with uniform velocity. When this flow comes in the contact with the plate, there is an adhering of the fluid with solid surface. A considerable shearing action occurs between the two layers of the fluids of which one is the layer on the plate surface and the other is the second layer of fluid. By this shearing action, the second layer of the fluid decelerates and passes the sharing action to the third layer. The process repeats itself to the other layers. The Reynolds number decides whether the flow is turbulent or viscous.

Application of Hydraulic Engineering

The designing of dams, water distribution networks, levees, water collection networks, sediment transport, storm water management, as well as other topics relating to technical and transportation engineering are the various common topics of design for the hydraulic engineers. Equations of the discipline of fluid dynamics and mechanics are used in other engineering disciplines like aeronautical engineering, mechanical engineering and in the process of traffic engineering as well