Vaccinia-like diseaseSmallpox caused by variola virus (VARV) has successfully been eradicated in the last quarter of the 20th century. However, vaccinia like viruses (VLVs) , viz. Aracatuba virus, Cantagalo virus, buffalo pox virus and other human VACV-like pox infections continue to circulate in a few regions of the world. These VACV-like infections cause disease in both human and animals. Such zoonoses have been native to only specific countries like Aracatuba and Cantagalo viruses are limited in Brazil only. Similarly, buffalo pox is limited to India, Pakistan, Nepal, Indonesia, Italy and Egypt. In animals the lesions are similar to those caused by cowpox and in man the disease is similar to milker’s nodule.