Write a structured and annotated c program, C/C++ Programming

Intelligent homes are becoming increasingly popular as the cost/performance ratio of microcontrollers is continuously dropping.  These systems incorporate various transducers to detect and transmit status of the home to a supervisory microcomputer. Heating, lighting, security and other parameters are normally controlled by the microcomputer to provide a comfortable and safe environment for the residents.

The block diagram of a simple home automation system is illustrated below:

856_digital output.png

2. Input and output connections

Details of connections to the microcontroller input and output ports are described below:

Analogue inputs:

Light Intensity Sensor (LDR) is connected to channel 0 of ADC (RA0).

Manual Control (potentiometer) is connected to channel 1 of ADC (RA1).

Analogue outputs:

The intensity of light emitted by the LED is controlled by PWM1 output (RC1).

The intensity of light emitted by the LED is controlled by PWM2 output (RC2).

Digital outputs:

The LEDs connected to RC5 is used indicate that a security link is broken.

RB0-RB5 outputs are connected to LCD.

Digital inputs:

 RC3 switch is used to set the desired ambient light on RC1 (light 1).

All window and door contacts are wire OR-ed and connected to RC4 input.

RC6 switch is used to increment security code from 0-9

RC7 is used to enter any of the three digit security code.

Table below shows the function of each bit of PORTC.

Bit number




Not used



PWM1 output

Controlled by Potentiometer (POT)


PWM2 output

Controlled by LDR


Sets light intensity

When held high, the desired ambient light 1 can be set


Security loop

High indicates a security breach



Flashing LED


Security code entry

High-Low transition increments code by one


Enter code

High-low transition enters one of 3 security digits

 3. Aims

To develop a 'C' program to emulate an intelligent home and evaluate its operation using the E-BLOCK boards in the T5/03 Embedded Systems laboratory.

4. Objectives

1.  To write a structured and annotated 'C' program.

2.  To provide evidence of the development of each stage of the program. This will consist of producing a logbook and a formal report.

3.  To demonstrate a functional (fully or partially) program to your tutor at the end of term 2 during a scheduled laboratory session.

4. To introduce new ideas or improvements to the system.

5. Tasks

The computer performs the following tasks.

1. The intensity of two lights are controlled either manually from the potentiometer (dimmer mode) or automatically by measuring the intensity of ambient light using the LDR and adjusting the light output.

a)  The intensity of LED connected to RC1 is adjusted by the potentiometer. Press and hold RC3 switch and adjust the potentiometer from 0-5 V and show the set intensity on first line one of the LCD. The LED should light up to the desired intensity when RC3 is released.

b)  The intensity of LED connected to RC2 is controlled automatically by measuring the ambient light. When LDR is covered, the LED lights up to its maximum intensity (about 5 V) and turn off when uncovered. As you move your hand over the LDR, the intensity of the LED should change accordingly.

2.  The contacts on the windows and doors are linked to form a continuous loop. RC4 is connected to the loop. When a window or door opens the voltage on the loop changes to 5V. This could be simulated by pressing the switch connected to RC4. A high on this pin indicates a security breach if the system is armed.

3.  The security system can be armed and disarmed by entering a 3-digit code. Press the switch connected to RC6 repeatedly to change the first digit of the code from 0-9 as shown on the second line of the LCD When the first digit is displayed on the LCD, press the switch connected to RC7 to enter the digit and move to the next digit. After all three digits are entered, the LED connected to RC5 is turned on to indicate the security system is armed. The system could be disarmed in a similar manner by entering a different code. Use the following codes for the security system:

To arm the system: 123

To disarm the system: 230

The codes should be cleared after they have been entered for security reasons.

4.  When the security loop is broken while the system is armed, the LED connected to RC5 should start to flash at a regular intervals (e.g. twice /second) for 30 seconds. During this period if the system is disarmed the LED should stop flashing and return to its off status. However, if it is not disarmed in time then the system should automatically disarm itself.

Use Timer 0 in interrupt mode for flashing the RC5 LED.

Use Timer 1 in interrupt mode for timing 30 seconds.

Posted Date: 3/20/2013 6:39:28 AM | Location : United States

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