WHEN or THEN Key Constraints
Suppose a table has two columns representing a period of time throughout which the information conveyed by the other columns is recorded as having been the case. A salary history table for employees, with columns From and To for dates defining the applicable time periods, would be a good example.
A constraint is needed to avoid the possibility of an employee being shown as having two different salaries on the same day, which could happen if two rows for the same employee have overlapping periods indicated by their From and To dates. The term "WHEN/THEN constraint" appeals to the notion of "unpacking" the table so that each row is replaced by one or more rows, one for each date contained in its from-to period: when the relation is unpacked, then the given key constraint (e.g., on employee number and date) is to hold.