Q. What is protocooperation?
The Protocooperation is the ecological interaction in which both participants benefit but which is not obligatory for their survival. The Protocooperation is a harmonious (positive) interspecific ecological interaction. Instance of protocooperation are the action of the spur-winged plover that using its beak eats residuals from crocodile teeth the removal of the ectoparasites from the back of bovines by some birds that eat the parasites the hermit crab that live inside shells over which sea anemones live (these offer protection to the crab and gain mobility to obtain food).