Unconventional oilseed cakes/meal
Deoiled sal (Shorea robusta) seed meal: It is a byproduct obtained after the extraction of oil from sal seeds. It is found to be high in NFE, low in crude fibre and deficient in phosphorus and calcium. As such it is not palatable but when mixed with wheat bran animal consume the sal seed meal. Sal seed meal is a rich source of energy and feeding of this meal for shorter duration upto 40% level to adult cattle had no deleterious effects. The safe level of deoiled sal seed meal is 10% in concentrate mixture for lactating cows. Higher levels have adverse effect on milk production and body weight of cows mainly due to the presence of 8 to 13% tannic acid. However, inclusion of molasses depresses the adverse effect of sal seed meal and can be utilized at 20% level.
Mahua (Madhuca indica) seed cake: The total production of mahua seeds is estimated to be about 22 lakh tonnes per annum and only 20% is being collected for utilization. Mahua seed cake as such is not palatable to the animal however, it can be fed as a part of concentrate mixture to the adapted animals. Feeding of processed mahua seed cake to growing calves showed better growth rate when fed at 20% level or replaced 50% DCP of concentrate mixture advantageously. The mahua seed cake is found to contain two toxic principles viz. mowrin and tannin. Among these, mowin is a saponin which is an endogenous toxic factor present in oil seed residues and produce glucosides in which non-sugar residue (sapogenin) is triterpenoid alcohol and these are usually bitter in taste. Some studies have shown that mowrin is causing degenerative changes in the vital organ of the body viz. liver and spleen and thereby disturbing the metabolism of nutrients.
Rubber seed cake (Hevea brasiliensis): The potential availability of the cake is approximately 1,500 thousand tonnes annually in India. The cake can be incorporated at 30 and 25 %, respectively in the concentrate mixtures of crossbred calves (500g/d) and milch cows. It contains HCN at very low levels (0.01 %).
Karanj (Pongamia glabra) cake: Expeller pressed karanj cake is bitter in taste with pungent smell and is freely available in the eastern parts of India. It is commonly used as manure though it has potentiality to be used as livestock and poultry feed ingredient. The solvent extracted cake is a good source of protein and energy. It showed promising results when incorporated up to 24 % level in a standard concentrate mixture and fed to growing calves. The solvent extracted karanj cake can replace 60 % of mustard cake nitrogen for crossbred calves without any adverse effect on daily milk yield. The cake contains several incriminating factors and the most important is karanjine, an alkaloid. Most of the toxin is fat soluble and can be removed during solvent extraction.
Kokam (Garcinia indica) cake: According to an estimate, the cake is available to the tune of 15 thousand tonnes annually in the country. The DCP and TDN contents are 9.3 and 80 %, respectively. No toxic factors have been reported in it and cake is palatable to cattle. About 15 % is recommended for use in the concentrate mixture of crossbred calves.
Kosum (Schleichera oleosa) cake: An estimated annual availability of kosum cake is about 30 thousand tonnes in India. It is a rich source of energy while a moderate source of protein. The expeller processed cake contains cyanogenic glycosides up to levels of 6% HCN, whereas the solvent extracted cake contains even lower levels of these glycosides. Both the expeller processed and solvent extracted cakes are palatable to poultry and ruminants. The expeller processed cake can be included in the concentrate mixtures of crossbred calves at 35 % level without any adverse effect on growth rate. The toxin in the cake does not produce any apparent adverse effects due to its very low concentrations.
Nahar seed (Mesua ferrea) meal: Approximate total annual availability of nahar seeds in the North eastern region is about 15-20 thousand metric tonnes. The nahar seed meal has been found to be a potential source of digestible protein and energy. It contains about 10 % moisture. The DCP and TDN values were found to be 12.84 and78 % respectively.
Niger (Guizotia abysainica) seed cake: About 100 thousand tonnes of the cake is available annually in India. It is a very good source of protein and a moderate source of energy. The cake is not known to contain any toxic factor and is quite palatable. It can be incorporated up to 5 % in the concentrate mixtures of crossbred calves.
Corn steep liquor: It is a byproduct of maize starch industry following wet milling process. It is available to the extent of over 4000 tonnes annually from Gujarat and over 10 thousand tonnes from rest of India. Corn steep liquor contains about 45-50% moisture and about 40-50% CP on dry matter basis. The only limitation is its liquid and acidic nature. The corn steep liquor as such is not palatable but becomes palatable when mixed with wheat bran. No adverse effect on health, milk production and milk composition was observed in the cows fed corn steep liquor at 10% level in the concentrate mixture.
Maize gluten meal: It is produced from wet milling or corn for starch and syrup.The corn gluten meal produced are of two types one with 40% CP supplement and other 60%. The later being the more common. Both supplements are good sources of UDP. Energy content of corn gluten meal is only slightly less than corn grain. There is a limit to feeding of a maximum of 2kg/ animal/ day because of palatability problems.
Isabgul (Plantago ovata) gola and lali: It is a widely grown crop in north Gujarat for pharmaceutical industry. The isabgol byproducts, viz. lali (containing embryo and small seed pieces) and gola (deep red, hard husked seed kernels) are palatable to the bullocks even when fed alone with some basal roughage source. The DCP and TDN content of isabgul gola is 29% and 14% while that of lali is about 85% and 73%. They can be incorporated at 25% level of lali and 50% level of gola in the concentrate mixture of lactating cows without any deleterious effects.
Warai bran (Panicum milliceum): The annual availability of the Warai bran is estimated to be approximately 20 thousand tonnes. The bran is palatable and can replace wheat bran/rice bran by suitably adjusting the protein content of the ration. It can be incorporated up to 30 % level in the concentrate mixtures of crossbred calves. It has not been reported to contain any toxic substances.
Tamarind (Tamarindus indicus) seed powder: About 90 thousand tonnes of tamarind seeds are available annually in India. The seeds contain 30 to 45 % red hulls and 55 to 70 % white kernels. The kernels are good source of energy and protein. The kernel powder can be incorporated in calf starters up to 25 % level.
Ambadi (Hibiscus cannabinus) cake: The cake is available in very large quantities, particularly in western Maharashtra and Marathwada regions. The cake does not contain any toxic factor and is quite palatable. It is a good source of energy and protein. It can be incorporated at 20 % level in the concentrate mixture of crossbred calves and lactating cows.It is important to assess the feed value of byproducts in relation to the type of animal and the system of production in which the material is to be used. Thus low quality byproducts in categories A and B are best suited to use with animals which have relatively low nutrients requirements such as dry dairy cows and goats. Such feeds may also be used tactically at times of feed shortage to reduce the cost of the diet. Byproducts in categories C and D are most appropriately used in more intensive systems such as pig and poultry production. They also have wide application in ruminant livestock operations. Thus oilseed cakes and agro-industrial byproducts are regularly part of compounded feeds for high yielding dairy cows.