Types of field-effect transistors, Electrical Engineering

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Types of Field-Effect Transistors

The channel of a FET (field-effect transistor) is doped to produce either an N-type semiconductor or a P-type semiconductor. The drain and source might be doped of opposite type to the channel, in case of depletion mode FETs, or doped of identical type to the channel like in enhancement mode FETs. Field-effect transistors are as well distinguished by the method of insulation among the channel and gate. Types of FETs are:

  1. CNFET
  2. The DEPFET is a FET made in a fully-depleted substrate and works like a sensor, amplifier and memory node at the same time. It can be employed as an image (photon) sensor.
  3. The DGMOSFET is a MOSFET along with dual gates.
  4. The DNAFET is a specialized FET which works as a biosensor, using a gate made of single-strand DNA molecules to detect matching DNA strands.
  5. The Fast Reverse or Fast Recovery Epitaxial Diode FET that is abbreviated as FREDFET is a specialized FET designed to provide an extremely fast recovery (turn-off) of the body diode.
  6. The HEMT (High Electron Mobility Transistor), as well called an HFET (hetero structure FET), can be made by using band gap engineering in a ternary semiconductor like AlGaAs (Aluminium gallium arsenide). The fully depleted wide-band-gap material makes the isolation in between gate and body.
  7. The Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor that is abbreviated as IGBT is a device for power control. It comprises a structure akin to a MOSFET coupled along with a bipolar-like main conduction channel. These are usually used for the 200-3000 V drain-to-source voltage range of operation. Power MOSFETs (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor) are still the device of choice for drain-to-source voltages of 1 to 200 V.
  8. The ISFET (ion-sensitive field-effect transistor) is an Ion-Sensitive Field Effect Transistor employed to calculated ion concentrations in a solution; while the ion concentration (such as H+, see pH electrode) changes, the current via the transistor will change accordingly.
  9. The Junction Field-Effect Transistor that is abbreviated as JFET uses a reverse biased p-n junction to separate the gate from the body.
  10. The Metal-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor that is abbreviated as MESFET substitutes the p-n junction of the JFET with a Schottky barrier; employed in GaAs and other III-V semiconductor materials.
  11. The Modulation-Doped Field Effect Transistor that is abbreviated as MODFET uses a quantum well structure made by graded doping of the active region.
  12. The Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor that is abbreviated as MOSFET utilizes an insulator (typically SiO2) between the gate and the body.
  13. The Nanoparticle Organic Memory Field-Effect Transistor abbreviated as NOMFET.
  14. The Organic Field-Effect Transistor abbreviated as OFET using an organic semiconductor in its channel.

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