Traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP)
It is also known as traumatic gastritis, hardware disease or traumatic reticulitis.
Etiology: Frequently small sharp foreign objects are swallowed by cattle and buffaloes because of their indiscriminate eating habit. These objects lodge in the reticulum where they may penetrate the wall causing inflammatory processes.
Pathogenesis: Ingested metallic foreign body after swallowing lodges in the reticulum. It remains there without causing any harm to the animal. Due to contractions of reticulum, the object may penetrate reticular wall and cause local peritonitis resulting in atony of rumen and abdominal pains. The foreign body may penetrate the pericardium, pleura, spleen or liver. There may be rupture of gastroepiploic artery causing sudden death due to internal haemorrhage.
Clinical signs: Animal with typical signs of traumatic reticuloperitonitis has arched back, anorexia and sudden onset. Significant decrease in milk yield, abduction of forelegs, reluctance to move and increase in body temperature are seen. Pulse rate is high while rumen contractions are either absent or decreased. Rumination is suspended, whereas, reticular grunt may be heard on auscultation. Pressure of fist in xiphoid region incites pain. Muscle tremors are also present.
Laboratory diagnosis: Haematological examination indicates leukocytosis with neutrophilia (shift to left). Fibrinogen level is also increased. Use of metal detector may be helpful in revealing metallic object. Presence of foreign object may be confirmed by X-ray examination.
Diagnosis: Traumatic reticuloperitonitis should be differentiated from abomasal displacement, carbohydrate engorgement and traumatic pericarditis. TRP has got classical signs of grunting pain, atony of the rumen, fall in the milk yield and leukocytosis with neutrophilia (left shift). Rumen atony, inappetance and fall in milk production are also seen in abomasal displacement, acid indigestion, simple indigestion and intestinal obstruction. In abomasal displacement ping pong sounds can be heard on the left paralumber fossa. Staggering gait, recumbency, and blindness are recorded in acid indigestion. In traumatic pericarditis splashing or tinkling sounds are heard on auscultation of the heart. There is also brisket edema.
Treatment: Animal should be confined to a stall, preferably on an inclined floor with elevated front and exercise should be avoided. Anti-inflammatory and antibiotics should be administered. Rumen magnets may be administered to prevent penetration of sharp iron object. Surgical removal of foreign body by rumenotomy is suggested. Abomasal displacement The abomasum, a sac like elongated organ lying on the lower right quadrant of the abdominal cavity, can move from its normal position resulting in left side displacement of abomasum (LDA) or right side displacement of abomasum (RDA).